## Ideal gas law equation of state

An **ideal gas law** formula represents the relationship between pressure, volume, the temperature of a given mass of a gas. Thus at equilibrium, gas has a definite value of pressure, volume, temperature, and composition. These are called state variables and this equation is known as the equation of state.

Boyle’s in 1662, Charles’s in 1787 and Avogadro give the birth of the ideal gas law equation state.

### Derivation of the ideal gas law

Boyles law V ∝ 1/T

when n and T are constant.

Charles law, V ∝ T

when n and P are constant.

Avogadro’s law, V ∝ n

when P and T are constant.

Thus when all the variables are taken into account, the variation rule states as,

PV = nRT

where R = universal gas constant.

Hence this equation is given the relation between pressure, volume, temperature, and composition. But the equation found to hold most satisfactory when pressure low or tense to zero.

At ordinary temperature and pressure, the equation found to deviated about 5%. Thus real gases attain ideal behavior only at low pressures and very high temperatures.

### Universal gas constant in different units

Universal gas constant R | |

atm unit | 0.082 lit atm mol^{-1} K^{-1} |

^{CGS unit} |
8.314×10^{7} erg mol^{-1} K^{-1} |

SI unit | 8.314 joule mol^{-1} K^{-1} |

Cal unit | 2 cal mol^{-1} K^{-1} |

At NTP 1 mole gas at 1-atmosphere pressure occupied 22.4 lit of volume. Thus from the ideal gas law

#### Universal gas constant in CGS units

In SI units, pressure = 1 atm

= 76 × 13.6 × 981 dyne cm^{-2}

= 8.314 × 10^{7} dyne cm^{2} mol^{-1} K^{-1}

∴ R = 8.314 × 10^{7} erg mol^{-1} K^{-1}

where dyne cm^{2} = erg

#### Universal gas constant in SI units

R = 8.314 × 10^{7} erg mol^{-1} K^{-1}

But 1 J = 10^{7} erg

Thus universal constant of gas in SI units

= 8.314 J mol^{-1} K^{-1}

Agin 4.18 J = 1 calorie

= 1.987 calories mol^{-1} K^{-1}

≃ 2 calories mol^{-1} K^{-1}

### Significance of ideal gas constant

For n mole ideal gas

PV = nRT

But pressure = force/area = force/ length^{2}

= force × length^{-2}

Volume = length^{3}

Thus universal gas constant R = energy per mole per kelvin or amount of work or energy that can be obtained from one mole of gas when its temperature raised by one kelvin.

#### Density from the ideal gas equation

The ideal gas equation for n mole

where g = weight in gram

M = molecular weight

where d = density = weight/volume

Thus from the above equation, we can easily find out the density from the known molecular weight of the gas.

Problem

The density of ammonia at 5-atmosphere pressure and 30°C temperature 3.42 gm lit^{-1}. What is the molecular weight of ammonia?

Answer

= 16.99 gm mol^{-1}

≃ 17 gm mol^{-1}

### Number of gas molecules per unit volume

where N = number gas molecules present

N_{0} = Avogadro number = 6.023 × 10^{23}

where N′ = gas molecules per unit volume.

k = Boltzmann constant = R/N₀

= 1.38 × 10^{-16} erg molecules^{-1} K^{-1}

Problem

Estimate the number of gaseous molecules left in a volume of 1 mi-liter if it pumped out to give a vacuum of 7.6 × 10⁻³ mm of Hg at 0°C.

Answer

Volume (V) = 1 ml = 10^{-6} dm^{3}

Pressure (P) = 7.6 × 10^{-3} mm Hg

= 1.01235 × 10^{-3} kPa

= 2.68 × 10^{-11}

#### The pressure of an ideal gas derivation

Assuming ideal behavior finds out the total pressure exerted by 2 gm methane and 3 gm carbon dioxide contained in a vessel of 5-liter capacity at 50°C.

Total moles (n_{1} + n_{2}) = (0.125 + 0.0682)

= 0.1932

Thus the total pressure of this ideal gas mixture = 5.30 atm.