Hydrogen is the only chemical element in the periodic table in which the valence electron under the direct influence of the nucleus or there is no shielding electron. It has the symbol ‘H‘ and the molecular formula H2. The hydrogen molecule is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas which uses in the earliest time for the production of water.
Hydrogen has the three isotopes having the chemical name protium (1H1), deuterium (1H2), and tritium (1H3). Atomic hydrogen has a very simple structural model. It contains one electron and one proton with atomic number = 1 and atomic weight or mass = 1.007829.
Under ordinary conditions, due to the presence of one valence electron in the 1s-orbital, it forms a wide number of common chemical bonding such as covalent, ionic, bridge bonds, and hydrogen bonding.
Where is hydrogen found?
In 1766 Henry Cavendish, an English chemist and physicist discovered the most combustible element or molecule like hydrogen. The name hydrogen was given from the origin of Greek words meaning ‘water maker’.
Besides the common physical state of matter like solid, liquid, and gas on the earth’s universe, hydrogen is a gas molecule at room temperature. It is the third most abundant chemical element after oxygen and silicon and 2nd most abundant gas molecule after oxygen.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table
- The ns1 electronic configuration hydrogen justifies the position in period-1 and group-1 with the alkali metals family (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium). The ionization energy of hydrogen is also similar to that of alkali metals.
- If we consider the electron configuration of hydrogen, it is just one electron short of the next noble gas helium. Therefore, it may be placed in group 17 with the halogen family such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. All these elements have very high electronegativity and electron affinity.
- Due to the presence of the half-filled valence electrons, hydrogen is also placed in group-14 with the carbon family by forming a wide number of covalent chemical bonds with a wide range of polarity.
The most common oxidation number of hydrogen = +1, but due to unique characteristics, it also shows a −1 oxidation state to form LiH, NaH, CsH, and CaH2.
Isotopes of hydrogen
Hydrogen has the three isotopes having the chemical name protium, deuterium, and tritium and chemical formula 1H1, 1H2, and 1H3 respectively.
These three isotopes form three covalent gas molecules like dihydrogen, dideuterium, and ditritium. These isotopes are used as an alternative fuel for engines or renewable energy sources for our environment.
|Discovery||Henry Cavendish in 1766|
|Name derived from||The Greek words hydro and genes, meaning water forming|
|Common isotope||1H2 (deuterium), 1H3 (tritium)|
|Crystal structure||Hexagonal crystal lattice|
|Electron per shell||1|
|State at 20 °C||Gas|
|Melting point||−259.16 °C, −434.49 °F, 13.99 K|
|Boiling Point||−252.88 °C, −423.18 °F, 20.27 K|
|Density||0.000082 g cm−3|
|Atomic radius (non-bonded)||1.10 Å|
|Covalent radius||0.32 Å|
|Oxidation number or states||1, −1|
|Ionization energy||1st: 1312.05 kJ mol−1|
|Electron affinity||72.769 kJ mol−1|
|Electronegativity||2.19 (Pauling scale)|
|Molar heat capacity
||28.836 J mol-1 K-1|
Facts about hydrogen
Hydrogen is a unique type of chemical element that does not found free in the earth’s atmosphere but is widely used in everyday life. The kinetic energy of H2 molecules at the earth’s temperature is sufficient to escape it from the earth’s gravitational energy. Therefore, the density of H2 decreases in our environment.
Molecular hydrogen is a very stable and nonreactive species due to high bond energy but the atomic form is the most reactive species. Only one percent of atomic forms are present in the H2 gas molecule.
The half-life of the atomic form is nearly 1 second at 0.2 mm pressure. A huge specific heat (432.6 kJ mol−1) uses for recombination of atomic H. This process is used for high-temperature welding of tantalum and tungsten metals.
Hydrogen atom absorbed energy to shift their valence electrons particles to different energy levels. The electrons in higher energy levels are relatively unstable and hence drop back to the lower energy level to produce the electromagnetic spectrum or H-spectrum.
Nuclear Spin Isomers
When the nucleus of an atom contains an odd number of nucleons, the nucleus has a resultant spin. If such two atoms combine to form a diatomic molecule, the nuclei may have their spin parallel or anti-parallel. It is called nuclear spin isomerism.
- The molecule in which the two nuclei have a parallel spin is called an ortho-isomer.
- The molecule with antiparallel nuclear spins is called a para-isomer.
Such nuclear spin isomer is found in H2, D2, T2, N2, O2, etc. The conversion of para-H2 to the ortho-H2 compound is normally very slow. They involved the forbidden transition between two energy states of the different spin municipalities.
What is hydrogen used for?
Hydrogen and its compounds are widely used in the different types of fuel cells and industrial production processes. The most common uses of hydrogen are given below,
- It uses for the manufacture of ammonia.
- It is an important chemical compound which uses for the manufacturing of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, methyl alcohol, etc.
- In hydroformylation reaction, H2 may add formyl group into alkenes. The produced formyl compound subsequently changed to form different types of alcohols. These alcohols are used for the preparation of PVC resin and detergents.
- Methyl alcohol prepared from hydrogen is subsequently oxidized by the oxo process to form formaldehyde which is a starting material for the synthesis of plastics.
- Hydrogen electrodes is used for the determination of the pH of an unknown solution.
- Atomic hydrogen torches are used for welding of high melting metals like tantalum and tungsten.
- It is also used for the reduction of metal oxides. A direct reduction of iron ore by H2 is used for the manufacturing of iron.
- The liquid H2 molecule is used in the propulsion of rockets.
- In bubble chambers, liquid hydrogen is used to study high-energy particles.
- Hydrogen oxygen type mixture uses in the fuel cells for the production of renewable energy which uses widely electric vehicles.
- The hydrogen spectrum is used to analyze different types of physical or chemical properties.
Uses of deuterium
- Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen which uses mainly for the production of heavy water.
- Heavy water obtained from deuterium is used as a moderator and coolant in nuclear power reactors.
- Deuterium oxide is the main source of deuterium compounds.
- Deuterium and its compounds are widely used to study the reaction mechanisms.
Uses of tritium
- Tritium is widely used as a tracer element due to its radioactivity.
- Tritium extensively uses hydrological studies on the moment of groundwater in the earth’s environment
- It is also used to study the absorption of crystalline metals and multiphase alloys in autoradiography.
- The hydrogen isotope tritium is used to study the reaction mechanism, reaction kinetics, and homogeneous catalysis.