Properties of the Hydrogen Molecule

Hydrogen is the only element in the periodic table with atomic number 1 and electron configuration 1S1 with unique physical and chemical properties. Due to the presence of three isotopes, the molecular formula depicted as H2 (di-hydrogen), D2 (di-deuterium), and T2 (di-tritium). The chemistry study of hydrogen has late gained, fresh uses of H2 as fuel and alternative energy source when we remember huge stock of liquid in the earth as surface water. On the earth’s surface, hydrogen gas is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and 2nd most abundant gases after oxygen.

Therefore, Hydrogen has the only element in the periodic table, where the valence electron is directly influenced by the nucleus with no shielding electron. Hence the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen gases influence by this electron. With its single electrons, it represents a wide range of chemical bonding.

Physical properties, atomic number and uses of hydrogen (H2) isotopes protium, deuterium, and tritium

  1. Its nS1 electron configuration justifies its position in Group-1 with the alkali metals.
  2. But if we consider the electron configuration, one electron short to the next noble gas helium. Thus it placed in group-17 with halogen.
  3. With its half-filled valence shell, H2 also placed group-14 with carbon and forms covalent chemical bonding with a wide range of polarities.

Physical Properties of Hydrogen Isotopes

Protium, deuterium, and tritium are the hydrogen isotopes having mass number 1, 2, and 3 respectively.

Name of the Isotopes Symbol
Protium 1H1
Deuterium 1H2
Tritium 1H3

It is the most abundant element in the earth’s atmosphere. But it does not occur free in the earth’s atmosphere.  Because of the speed of the molecules at the earth, the temperature is sufficient to enable them to escape from the earth’s atmosphere.

Uses of Hydrogen Gas in Our Daily Life

Molecular hydrogen or protium, deuterium, and tritium are wide uses to fuel in our daily life or chemical industries.

  1. Hydrogen uses for the production of ammonia.
  2. It is used to manufacture HCl and other chemical manly alcohol by the oxo process.
  3. The addition of H2 in the formyl group CHO into alkenes. The aldehydes are subsequently changed to alcohols, these are used for the production of PVC and detergents.
  4. Atomic H2 torches used for welding.
  5. For the direct reduction of iron ore, we used H2 on a commercial basis.
  6. Buble chambers and rocked we used liquid hydrogen as a fuel.

Uses of Protium Deuterium and Tritium

D2O is largely used as heavy water in nuclear power plants. D2O also used as a source of deuterium compounds. Thus deuterium uses to study the physical and chemical properties reaction mechanism. But titanium widely used as a tracer element due to radioactivity and also largely used

  1. In hydrological studies to flow of the movent of water on the ground surface.
  2. Hydrogen spectrum uses to study the metals and multiphase alloy’s physical properties.
  3. In the study of the reaction mechanism, kinetics, and catalysis.