Physical properties and uses of hydrogen

Hydrogen in the periodic table

Hydrogen occupies a unique position in the periodic table among the chemical elements and widely uses in our daily life. It is only elements in which the valence electron is directly influenced by the nucleus. Thus the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen influence by this electron.

Thus it has no shielding electrons. With its single electrons, it represents a wide range of chemical bonding.

Physical properties and uses of hydrogen
Protium, deuterium, and tritium
  1. Its nS1 electron configuration justifies its position in Group-1 with the alkali metals.
  2. But if we consider the electron configuration, one electron short to the next noble gas helium. Thus it placed in group-17 with halogen.
  3. With its half-filled valence shell, H also placed group-14 with carbon. H also forms covalent chemical bonds with a wide range of polarities.

Physical properties of hydrogen isotopes

Hydrogen has mainly three natural isotopes which are protium, deuterium, and tritium.

Name of the Isotopes Symbol
Protium 1H1
Deuterium 1H2
Tritium 1H3

It is the most abundant element in the earth’s atmosphere. But it does not occur free in the earth’s atmosphere.  Because of the speed of the molecules at the earth, the temperature is sufficient to enable them to escape from the earth’s atmosphere.

Uses of hydrogen in our daily life

H and its isotopes are wide uses in our daily life or chemical industries.

  1. Hydrogen uses for the manufacture of ammonia.
  2. It is used to manufacture HCl and other chemical manly alcohol by the oxo process.
  3. The addition of H in the formyl group CHO into alkenes. The aldehydes are subsequently changed to alcohols, these are used for the production of PVC and detergents.
  4. Atomic hydrogen torches used for welding.
  5. For the direct reduction of iron ore, we used H on a commercial basis.
  6. Buble chambers and population of rocked we used liquid hydrogen as a fuel.

Uses of deuterium, and tritium

D2O is largely used as heavy water in nuclear power plants. D2O also used as a source of deuterium compounds. Thus deuterium hydrogen uses to study the physical and chemical properties reaction mechanism.

But titanium widely used as a tracer element due to radioactivity and also extensively used

  1. In hydrological studies to flow of the movent of water on the ground surface.
  2. To study the absorption spectrum of hydrogen in metals and uses multiphase alloy’s physical properties.
  3. In the study of the reaction mechanism, kinetics, and homogenous catalysis.