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What are the Properties of Matter?

Properties or physical and chemical properties are considered a key to understanding chemical elements (atoms, molecules), substances, or matter present in our earth’s environment in science. They are the characteristics of a material that enable us to differentiate one material from another.

Properties physical and chemical property of matter in chemistry

Properties of matter include density, colour, mass, volume, length, malleability, melting point, hardness, odour, temperature, reactivity, acidity, ionization energy, electron affinity, hydration enthalpy, electronegativity, etc.

  • Physical Property: A physical property is a characteristic of matter that can be observed and measured without changing its chemical identity. Therefore, appearance, color, order, melting and boiling points, atomic weight, molecular weight, density, electrical conductance are considered physical properties of matter.
  • Chemical Property: A chemical property is a characteristic of matter that can be observed and measured when a substance undergoes a chemical change. Chemical properties include reactivity, acidity, ionization energy, electron affinity, oxidation number, hydration enthalpy, electronegativity, chemical bonding, etc.

An observable property is a characteristic of materials that we can describe using our five senses. We can use our senses to observe colour, texture, hardness, and flexibility of a material.

Reactivity is an important property of matter in learning chemistry that derives the tendency of matter to combine chemically with other substances. Therefore, certain substances are highly reactive and some are inactive.

Solvent definition and types in chemistry, examples of common solvents solute and chemical solution


What is a solvent? A solvent in chemistry is a chemical substance in which other types of materials dissolve to form a solution. It is...
Solution, solvent, solute definition, types and examples of chemical solutions in chemistry


Solution definition A solution in chemistry is a type of homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances where a minor component (solute) is uniformly...
Concentration calculation formula for a chemical solution in chemistry


How to calculate concentration of a solution? Concentration in chemistry is a calculation of how much substance is present in a chemical solution or mixture. There...
Ionic bonding formation in sodium chloride (NaCl) from metal sodium and non-metal chlorine atoms in chemistry

Ionic Bonding

What is Ionic Bonding? Ionic bonding is the electrostatic force that binds together oppositely charged ions formed by the transfer of electron or electrons from...
Covalent bond types, definition, properties and examples of bonding in hydrogen, oxygen, water molecule

Covalent Bond

What is covalent bond? Covalent bond or covalent bonding may be defined as the sharing of one or more electron pairs with similar or dissimilar...
Calculation of bond energy and bonds dissociation energies of molecule

Bond Dissociation Energy

What is Bond Dissociation Energy? Bond dissociation energy is the energy absorbed per mole when a particular kind of chemical bond is broken in a...
Hydrogen bonding and intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bond in water, ice, ortho-nitrophenol molecule

Hydrogen Bonding

What is hydrogen bonding? Hydrogen bonding or intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bond is a weak type of chemical bond due to very unstable attractive forces...
Surface tension or surface energy, property of liquids or water acting if stretched unit area of liquid by elastic membrane

Surface Tension

Surface tension of liquid Surface tension or surface energy is the most important characteristic property of liquids origin at the surfaces and displayed when a...
Different types of bonding (ionic, covalent, metallic bonds) in the common chemical compound

Chemical Bonding

What is Chemical Bonding? Chemical bonding or chemical bond is the different types of force that bind together two common atoms or groups of atoms...
Ionization energy in periodic table elements trends and chart

Ionization Energy

Ionization Energy in Periodic Table Ionization energy or ionization potential in chemistry is the minimum amount of energy required to remove the outer electron of...