Chemical Substance

A substance or chemical substance in chemistry or chemical science is a unique form of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma) having a definite composition, properties, and structure. All objects or everything in our universe are made up of chemical substances. Therefore, the air we breathe, the food we eat, stones, clouds, stars, plants, and animals everything are examples of chemical substances.

Chemical substances are formed by a single element or chemical compound or a mixture of non-reacting molecules. Pure water (H2O) is an example of a chemical substance formed by one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms. Therefore, the atomic ratio in a pure water molecule is always 2:1. Other common substances are diamond, table salt, refined sugar, alcohol, benzene, a mixture of gases, and metals like iron, copper, aluminum, gold, silver, etc.

Chemical Substance Examples

A chemical substance occurs in nature at different states or phases such as solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. However, different forms of substances are interchangeable from one state to another by changing temperature or pressure. Examples of solid, liquid, and gaseous substances are:

  • Solid: Sugar, sands, rocks, stones, metals like iron, copper, aluminum, gold, silver, etc.
  • Liquid: Water, milk, juice, oil, kerosene, petrol, alcohol, benzene, etc.
  • Gaseous: Mixture of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, inert gases, etc. Other gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour, sulfur dioxide, etc.

In this part of online learning chemistry, we study different articles or topics related to the properties, composition, structure, production, and uses of a chemical substance.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chemical formula, structure, metal chelate, side effects and uses in chemistry

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA)

What is EDTA? Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an amino polycarboxylic acid commonly used as a chelating or sequestering agent with the chemical formula 2. It...
Urea or carbamide formula CO(NH2)2, structure and uses in fertilizer, resins, urea containing skin cream and automobile industry


What is urea? Urea or carbamide is a very important nitrogenous product in protein metabolism and excreted about 30 g per day in the urine...
Hydrogen sulfide structure formula and uses with poisoning or toxic effects on humans

Hydrogen Sulfide

What is hydrogen sulfide? Hydrogen sulfide (chemical formula H2S) is a colorless, flammable, toxic, or poisonous gas molecule that can be detected by its smell...
Structures of sulfur dioxide gas molecule with uses and effects on environment or humans health

Sulfur Dioxide

What is sulfur dioxide? Sulfur dioxide or Sulphur dioxide is a chemical compound of sulfur with the molecular formula SO2. It is a highly toxic...
Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) structure

Manganese Dioxide

What is manganese dioxide? Manganese dioxide is a slightly brownish black solid with the chemical formula MnO2. It is the main source of manganese compounds...
Facts, formula, properties, bonding and Molecular orbital diagram of carbon monoxide (CO) molecule

Carbon Monoxide

Facts about carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colurless, odourless, poisonous gas produced by burning carbon in insufficient oxygen. In the laboratory,...
Carbon dioxide in atmosphere, molecular formula, structure, facts, uses

Carbon Dioxide

What is carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide (molecular formula CO2) is a colorless, orderless gas that can be easily liquefied under critical temperature and pressure. It...
Ozone gas formula and molecular structure, formation of O3 molecule by solar uv radiation on upper atmosphere

Ozone Gas

What is ozone gas? Ozone gas is a triatomic allotrope of oxygen with the molecular formula O3. It is an important constituent of the upper atmosphere...
Shape of water molecule, chemical formula H2O, formed by oxygen and hydrogen existing in solid (ice), liquid, gas form


What is water molecule? Water molecule, chemical formula H2O, made by oxygen and hydrogen atom, existing in our earth environment as a crystalline solid, liquid,...
Boric acid (H3BO3) Structure, Properties, Preparation, and Chemical uses

Boric Acid

What is Boric Acid? Boric acid or Boric Powder, also called hydrogen borate or orthoboric acid is a white crystalline solid with the chemical formula...