Periodic table of elements in science first suggested by Mendeleev in 1861 to classify the number of chemical elements according to the atomic mass of the element, names as Mendeleev’s Law. Therefore, this periodic table chart dividing the chemical elements into numbers groups (vertical columns) and periods (horizontal rows) in chemistry. But the rare-earth elements and isotopes rising the problems when we placed according to atomic masses. Therefore, Mosely in 1911 provided the modern periodic table chart on the basis of atomic number rather than the atomic mass. Out of such a table list, the Bohrs scheme arranged the full elements in periodic tables into four blocks (s, p,d, and f-block) based on their electron configuration.
The modern law of periodic table states as the properties of chemical elements and their compound molecule is the periodic function of the atomic number.
Long Form of Periodic Table
The long form of the periodic table divided into units like left, right, and middle portions for learning chemistry or physics.
The left portion in the periodic table has group IA and IIA with the extremely high electropositive character but very low ionization energy and always shows the positive oxidation number.
The right portion contains groups IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, and zero groups with noble gases. Therefore, this portion consists of metals, metalloids, non-metals, and noble gases with electronegative character and high electron affinity.
However, this portion of the table consists of two groups transition metals and inner transition elements.
Block of Elements in Periodic Table
When this information based on the atomic number and electron configuration, these group’s elements in chemistry are divided into four types in the periodic table s, p, d, and f block for metals and non-metals.
In these names, electron enters the ns-orbital and filled progressively according to the periodic properties elements. Therefore, the group-1 and group-2 belong to these groups with valence shell electron configuration, ns1→2, where n = number of valence shell or the number of periods.
P-Block in Periodic Chart
When p-orbitals being progressively filled is called p-block elements. Therefore, the group-3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and noble gases belong to this block. Since s-orbitals in these atoms are already filled and the valence shell electron configuration, ns2 np1→6, where n = number of period.
d-Block or Transition Metals
When the electron particles enter the (n-1)d orbitals of (n-1)th main shell are called d-block. These placed in the middle of the table between s and p-block. Since these elements form an ionic or covalent chemical bonding with other metals or non-metals. Therefore, these table of elements is called transition metals in science with valence shell electronic configuration, ns0→2 nd1-10.
Periodic Properties of Element
Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, shielding electron, acid base character, redox reaction, etc are very important for any information of variation in physical and chemical properties in the periodic table. Therefore the summarize of physical and chemical properties along with the group and period.
The ionization energy usually decreases but may increases when an effective nuclear charge or electron nucleus attraction increases. Therefore the actually the lower member of crystalline solid metals like Ag, Au, Cd, and Hg, the ionization energy increases.
Similarly, electronegativity and electron affinity generally decreases but sometimes apparent some anomalies. Hence the electron affinity of the second raw element in the periodic table is usually lower than the third row.
Diagonal Chart in Periodic Table
The chemical properties of a pair of elements are related diagonally to each other when we consider the electric polarization power of a cation in science. Therefore, the polarity of cation depends directly on its charge but inversely on its size. Therefore, we can expect the diagonal pair has a similar change/size ratio. Since the size increases to the lower period while the charge increases to the right but this relation can not be ruled out completely for all the periodic table elements.