Periodic Table Elements in Chemistry

Periodic table elements in chemistry are organized in order of increasing atomic number or the full number of protons in the atomic nucleus, names as modern law of periodic table. According to the modern law of the periodic table, the chemical elements are arranged on the basis of electronic structure and properties to classify four categories like s, p, d, and f-block element. The modern law of the periodic table comes due to the breakdown of Mendeleev’s (1861) scientific classification on the basis of atomic weight or masse of the chemical elements. In the periodic table chart, the elements are represented by two parts, vertical columns (group) and horizontal rows (period) in chemistry or chemical science. The initial discovery explained by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev in 1861 and Mosely in 1911 to the Bohr model or scheme suggested the scientific development of groups and periods of the periodic table elements.

The modern law of the periodic table suggested that the properties of chemical elements and their compound or molecule is the periodic function of the atomic number. Periodic table chemical elements names, symbol, atomic numbers

Long Form of Periodic Table

According to the above definition and explanation, the long form of the periodic table is labeled into three units like left, right, and middle sections for learning chemistry or physics in science. The left section in the table has group IA and IIA define the extremely high electropositive character but very low ionization energy and always shows the positive oxidation number. The right portion contains groups IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA with high electron affinity, and non-reactive noble gases like helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. The organization of the middle portion of the periodic table made the relationship between the left and right sections and contains a list of transition metals or d-block and inner transition or f-block elements.

Block of Elements in Periodic Table

According to the modern periodic law based on the atomic number and valence shell electron arrangement of elements, the different types of metals and non-metals in chemistry are organized to form s, p, d, and f-block on the periodic table.

s-block elements

Period1234567
Group 1
Hydrogen & Alkali metals
Hydrogen
1
H
​1.008
Lithium
3
Li
​6.94
Sodium
11
Na
​22.990
Potassium
19
K
​39.098
Rubidium
37
Rb
​85.468
Cesium
55
Cs
​132.91
Francium
87
Fr
​[223]
Group 2
alkaline earth metals
Beryllium
4
Be
​9.0122
Magnesium
12
Mg
​24.305
Cal­cium
20
Ca
​40.078
Strontium
38
Sr
​87.62
Ba­rium
56
Ba
​137.33
Ra­dium
88
Ra
​226

The name f-block element in the periodic table is given due to the arrangement of electrons, the valence electron enters into ns-orbital and filled progressively according to the configuration rules. Group-1 (hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium) and group-2 (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) belong to these classes with valence shell electron configuration, ns1→2, where n = principle quantum number, or the number of periods.

p-block Elements

Group131415161718
Period 1Helium
2
He
​4.0026
Period 2Boron
5
B
​10.81
Carbon
6
C
​12.011
Nitrogen
7
N
​14.007
Oxygen
8
O
​15.999
Fluorine
9
F
​18.998
Neon
10
Ne
​20.180
Period 3Aluminum
13
Al
​26.982
Silicon
14
Si
​28.085
Phosphorus
15
P
​30.974
Sulfur
16
S
​32.06
Chlorine
17
Cl
​35.45
Argon
18
Ar
​39.95
Period 4Gallium
31
Ga
​69.723
Germanium
32
Ge
​72.630
Arsenic
33
As
​74.922
Selenium
34
Se
​78.971
Bromine
35
Br
​79.904
Krypton
36
Kr
​83.798
Period 5Indium
49
In
​114.82
Tin
50
Sn
​118.71
Antimony
51
Sb
​121.76
Tellurium
52
Te
​127.60
Iodine
53
I
​126.90
Xenon
54
Xe
​131.29
Period 6Thallium
81
Tl
​204.38
Lead
82
Pb
​207.2
Bismuth
83
Bi
​208.98
Polonium
84
Po
​209
Astatine
85
At
​210
Radon
86
Rn
​222
Period 7Nihonium
113
Nh
​286
Flerovium
114
Fl
​289
Moscovium
115
Mc
​290
Livermorium
116
Lv
​293
Tennessine
117
Ts
​294
Oganesson
118
Og
​294

P-block on the periodic table organizes by progressively filled p-orbital in valence shell electronic structure but helium is an exception with electron arrangement 1s2. Group-3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and noble gases belong to p-block elements. Since the second period of p block elements like boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and argon have filled s-orbitals with valence shell electron configuration, 2s2 2p1→6, where n = number of period.

d-block and f-block elements

Group3456789101112
Period 4Scan­dium
21
Sc
​44.956
Tita­nium
22
Ti
​47.867
Vana­dium
23
V 50.942
Chrom­ium
24
Cr
​51.996
Manga­nese
25
Mn
​54.938
Iron
26
Fe
​55.845
Cobalt
27
Co
​58.933
Nickel
28
Ni
​58.693
Copper
29
Cu
​63.546
Zinc
30
Zn
​65.38
Period 5Yttrium
39
Y
​88.906
Zirco­nium
40
Zr
​91.224
Nio­bium
41
Nb
​92.906
Molyb­denum
42
Mo
​95.95
Tech­netium
43
Tc
​[97]
Ruthe­nium
44
Ru
​101.07
Rho­dium
45
Rh
​102.91
Pallad­ium
46
Pd
​106.42
Silver
47
Ag
​107.87
Cad­mium
48
Cd
​112.41
Period 6Lan­thanum
57
La
​138.91
Haf­nium
72
Hf
​178.49
Tanta­lum
73
Ta
​180.95
Tung­sten
74
W
​183.84
Rhe­nium
75
Re
​186.21
Os­mium
76
Os
​190.23
Iridium
77
Ir
​192.22
Plat­inum
78
Pt
​195.08
Gold
79
Au
​196.97
Mer­cury
80
Hg
​200.59
Period 7Actin­ium
89
Ac
​[227]
Ruther­fordium
104
Rf
​[267]
Dub­nium
105
Db
​[268]
Sea­borgium
106
Sg
​[269]
Bohr­ium
107
Bh
​[270]
Has­sium
108
Hs
​[269]
Meit­nerium
109
Mt
​[278]
Darm­stadtium
110
Ds
​[281]
Roent­genium
111
Rg
​[282]
Coper­nicium
112
Cn
​[285]

The name d-block (transition series) or f-block (inner transition series) on the periodic table is used due to the presence of progressively filled d or f-orbitals in the valence shell electronic structure. The transition or inner transition family forms the ionic chemical bond with metals (s-block) and covalent bond with metals non-metals (p-block). Therefore, 3d-block elements like scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc are placed in the middle of the table between s and p-block with valence shell electronic configuration, 4s0→2 3d1-10.

LanthanidesCerium
58
Ce
​140.12
Praseo­dymium
59
Pr
​140.91
Neo­dymium
60
Nd
​144.24
Prome­thium
61
Pm
​[145]
Sama­rium
62
Sm
​150.36
Europ­ium
63
Eu
​151.96
Gadolin­ium
64
Gd
​157.25
Ter­bium
65
Tb
​158.93
Dyspro­sium
66
Dy
​162.50
Hol­mium
67
Ho
​164.93
Erbium
68
Er
​167.26
Thulium
69
Tm
​168.93
Ytter­bium
70
Yb
​173.05
Lute­tium
71
Lu
​174.97
ActinidesThor­ium
90
Th
​232.04
Protac­tinium
91
Pa
​231.04
Ura­nium
92
U
​238.03
Neptu­nium
93
Np
​[237]
Pluto­nium
94
Pu
​[244]
Ameri­cium
95
Am
​[243]
Curium
96
Cm
​[247]
Berkel­ium
97
Bk
​[247]
Califor­nium
98
Cf
​[251]
Einstei­nium
99
Es
​[252]
Fer­mium
100
Fm
​[257]
Mende­levium
101
Md
​[258]
Nobel­ium
102
No
​[259]
Lawren­cium
103
Lr
​[266]

The f-block on the periodic table divided into two series like 4f or lanthanides and 5f or actinides contain many missing elements discovered or synthesized by the nuclear reaction of radioactive isotopes.

Periodic Properties of Chemical Element

Understanding the periodic variation of ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, acid, and base properties, oxidation number in redox reaction of chemical elements are very important characteristics for any discussion or information in chemistry or science. In learning chemistry, we summarize physical and chemical properties along the group and period.

When we moving down in a group, the size and electropositive character of atoms increases. The ionization energy usually decreases but in many cases increases due to shielding electron or effective nuclear charge. The lower member of crystalline solid metals like silver (Ag), gold (Au), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg), the ionization energy increases. Electronegativity and electron affinity generally decreases but sometimes apparent some exceptions. The electron affinity trend of the second-row chemical element in the periodic table is usually lower than the third row.

Periodic Position of Chemical Elements

The pair of elements are arranging diagonally to each other in the period table to describe simple relation or chemical properties like electric polarization of contents in chemistry. The diagonal pair like beryllium and aluminum have a similar change/size ratio since the size increasing to the lower period while the charge increasing to the right but this rule can not be work completely for all the periodic table elements.

Interesting facts in the periodic table explaining the common connection between electronic structure and periodically accommodation capacities purpose of chemical elements in short form. For example, 1s orbital can have only two electrons, hence period one contains only two elements. Period-VI includes 6s, 4f, 5d and 6p orbitals in valence shell electronic structure with total of (2 + 14 + 10 + 6) = 32 elements from cesium to radon. The simplified scientific formula in chemistry uses to calculate the number of chemical elements in each period of the periodic table families.

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