Captopril medication (sold under the trade name aceten, capotril) is the first orally active ACE inhibitor approved for the treatment of high blood pressure, heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and postmyocardial infarction. It is a white or almost white crystalline solid which dissolves in dilute alkaline solutions. It is also dissolved in water, methylene chloride, and methanol solution. The dosages of captopril are prescribed mainly for the treatment and prevention of high blood pressure and heart failure. The ACE inhibitors like captopril, lisinopril, and enalapril should not be taken during pregnancy because they can cause serious side effects on the developing fetus.
It is an FDA-approved medication used to maintain your high blood pressure or hypertension. Maintenance of blood pressure helps to prevent various health diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems.
Action of captopril
The ACE inhibitor captopril is beneficial for hypertension and heart failure because it affects the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients. The RAAS mechanism can be regulating hemodynamics, water, and electrolyte balance in your body.
Captopril medication prevents the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II binds to AT1 receptors on smooth muscles to increase blood pressure in your body. It also stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone which also increases your blood pressure.
Captopril medication metabolizes bradykinin, a peptide that causes vasodilation. Therefore, captopril medication is used to maintain your high blood pressure or hypertension. Maintenance of blood pressure helps to prevent various health diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Like other ACE inhibitors, it may also help to prevent your migraine headache.
Chemical synthesis of captopril drug from 2-methyl-propanoic acid and pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid is given below the picture,
The ACE inhibitor, captopril has an L-proline group which allows it to be more bioavailable within oral formulations. It is the first orally effective ACE inhibitor to have been marketed. It is an FDA-approved medication used in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and postmyocardial infractions.
The dosages of captopril are prescribed for the treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, heart failure, and kidney failure caused by high blood pressure and diabetes. It is beneficial for patients who have a risk of heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetic nephropathy, etc.
It is sold in tablet forms with the brand names aceten and capotril. The usual strengths of captopril dosages available in the market are 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg.
Dose for hypertension
The starting dose for adults and geriatrics is 25 mg orally 2 to 3 times a day one hour before meals. It may increase or decrease based on the response of patients with the maximum dose of 450 mg per day.
It is also an off-label medicine used for the treatment or prevention of pediatric hypertension. Consult your doctor or pharmacist before applying adult and pediatric captopril dosages.
Dose for congestive heart failure
Starting dose for adults is 25 mg orally three times a day. The targeted dose is 50 mg orally three times per day which maintenance for two weeks. The doctor can increase your dose if captopril medication does not give a satisfactory result. The maximum dose of the medicine is 450 mg/day. It is also used with diuretics and digitalis to give the best result to treat congestive heart failure.
Left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction
Starting dose for adults is 6.25 mg orally after myocardial infarction, followed by 12.5 mg orally three times a day. Increase the dose to 25 mg orally three times a day for the next several days and increase up to 50 mg orally three times a day if captopril medication gives a satisfactory result.
Dose for diabetic nephropathy
The usual adult dose for diabetic nephropathy is 25 mg orally three times a day.
Captopril side effects
The common side effects after captopril medication are,
- Dry, persistent cough
- Rash, itching, dry mouth, taste alteration
- Chest pain, abdominal pain, fast heart rate
- Dizziness, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, nausea, confusion, depression, sleep problems
- Protein in urine
- Low white blood cell count
- Acute renal failure, kidney impairment
- Constipation, diarrhea, vomiting
- Increased levels of potassium in the blood
- high blood sodium levels
- Yellowing of eyes and skin (jaundice)
- Anemia or increased white blood cells in the lungs
- Blurred vision
Do not take it if you are allergic to captopril or any ingredients present in this drug. It should not be taken during pregnancy because captopril medication can cause serious side effects on the developing fetus. It can direct action on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) of your developing fetus which causes injury and death of the fetus. Tell your doctor if you take any ACE inhibitors like captopril, lisinopril, and enalapril during your pregnancy periods.