What is Chemistry?

Chemistry is the study of pure science that deals with the physical or chemical properties, reactions, composition, and structure of atoms, ions, or molecules that interact with energy. During any chemical transformation, an atom or molecule of matter absorbed or emitted energy. Chemistry provides the properties and structure of atoms of the periodic table elements.

Chemistry, the study of inorganic, organic, physical and analytical chemistry in science

Learning chemistry suggests how new chemical compounds (inorganic or organic compounds) are formed from different types of atoms by chemical bonding like ionic bonding, covalent bonding, or metallic bonding.

Branches of Chemistry

Physical, inorganic, organic, environmental, and analytical chemistry are the basic branches of chemistry for the different classes of study of properties, composition, structure, and chemical reactions in science.

What is Inorganic Chemistry?

Inorganic chemistry is the study of the properties, composition, reactions, and formation of inorganic compounds by different types of atoms of chemical elements.

In this part, we discuss the properties of chemical elements or compounds which is closely related to their electronic configuration. Orbital hybridization, molecular orbital theory, and crystal field theory have given a clear understanding of modern inorganic compounds.

Inorganic Compounds

Borax Boric acid
Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide
Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide
Carbon monoxide Zinc Sulfate
Ozone gas Potassium Hydroxide
Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid
Urea Heavy Water
Water Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Chloride Sodium Chloride
Chlorine Dioxide Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA)

What is Organic Chemistry?

Organic chemistry is the study of properties, composition, and chemical reactions of organic compounds coming mainly from living organisms. Simply, it is the chemistry of carbon compounds.

The definition included the compounds like carbon monoxide, carbon, carbon dioxide, carbonates, carbon disulfide, etc. But these compounds are usually studied in inorganic textbooks. Therefore, it is the study of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-related compounds.

Organic Chemistry Articles

Acetic Acid Acetylene
Alkenes Olefins Alkenes Properties
Alkanes Alkenes
Alcohol Amino Acids
Cyclophosphamide Propanol
Enzymes Ethanol
Ethylene Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene oxide n-Propanol (n propyl alcohol)
Formic acid Isopropyl Alcohol
Hemoglobin Hydrocarbon
Methane Gas Methanol
Organic Compound Organic Chemistry Quiz
Oxalic Acid Benzene
Polymers Protein
Riboflavin Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Thiamine Vitamin B12
Acetone (CH3COCH3) Acetaldehyde
Phenol Formaldehyde
Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5
Vitamin B6 Vitamin B7
B Vitamins Vitamin A
Vitamin C Vitamin E
Vitamin K Choline
Pyridoxine Niacinamide

How to find empirical formula?

The empirical formula in chemistry defines the relative number of each class of atom in the general molecular formula that helps with the calculation of the percentage composition or chemical structure of the molecule or compound.

Question: If 0.202 g of an organic compound gave combustion 0.361 g of carbon dioxide and 0.147 g of water. How to find the empirical formula of the compound in chemistry?

Answer: Weight of carbon in the said compound,
= (12/44) × 0.361 g
= 0.0985 g

Weight of the hydrogen
= (2/18) × 0.147 g
= 0.0163 g

Weight of oxygen,
= 0.202 − (0.0985 + 0.0163)
= 0.0872 g

Therefore, the ratio of the molar mass of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atom,
C : H : O = (0.0985/12) : (0.0163/1) : (0.0872/16)
= 3 : 5.98 : 2

From the above solution, the empirical formula of said organic compound is C3H6O2.

Molecular weight determination

The molecular formula provides the actual number of atoms present in each kind of molecule. It is obtained by multiplying the empirical formula by some whole number which is obtained from the consideration of the molecular weight of the compounds. In most cases, it is one.

The methods used for the determination of molecular weight are,

  • Vapour density
  • Elevation of boiling point
  • Depression of freezing point

These methods are described fully in the physical chemistry textbooks. But other physical methods include

  1. Graham’s law of diffusion
  2. Sedimentation
  3. The viscosity of liquid and gases
  4. Osmotic pressure
  5. X-ray radiation analysis
  6. Mass or atomic spectrum (used for substances that contain high molar mass)

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What is Physical Chemistry?

Physical chemistry is the study of general definitions, laws, principles, and mathematical equations, or formulas related to the atom or molecule of matter. Therefore, physical chemistry deals with the topics related to solids (amorphous and crystalline solid), gas (ideal and real gas, critical temperature), liquid, thermodynamics law of energy conservation, heat (molar or specific heat), chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, chemical catalyst, etc.

The study of physical chemistry is incomplete if the student confines himself only to the theoretical information, he must gain practical explanations of the theory, definition, problem, and solution.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemistry is the study or analysis of the chemical formula, structure, or composition of the atom, molecule, or matter for chemical, forensic, medicinal, food science, or technology. However, modern analytical chemistry definitions help to identify general substances that function on composition, structure, and reaction analysis for different types of chemical substances.

The most challenging task for an analytical chemist is to explain what is the nature of analytical chemistry. It is an interdisciplinary branch of science where a large number of research works have contributed to its development.

Analytical Chemistry Articles

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Chromatography Capillary Electrophoresis
Column Chromatography Size Exclusion Chromatography
Electrophoresis Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic Spectrum Gel Permeation Chromatography
Gas Chromatography
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Hydrogen Spectrum
Ion Exchange Chromatography Ion Exchange Resin
Optical Fiber
Paper Chromatography Polarimetry
Spectrophotometry Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy

Analytical chemist

All chromatographic studies were invented by biochemists or biological scientists, while methods of the electromagnetic spectrum and mass spectroscopy were discovered by physicists.

But if we close look, different types of research topics are published in different sets of science journals by using analytical chemistry methods. About 60% of such materials are published by persons who are not analytical chemists in the true sense.

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