Definition and Chemical Properties of Molecule

Molecule, formed by two or more atoms contains the smallest identifiable unit of pure substances in chemistry and biology or science which retain the composition and chemical properties of formation substances. When the chemical properties of the molecules cannot be described by a single structural diagram, it forms different types of molecular structures, the true structure in chemical science meaning the resonance hybrid of the pure molecule. Therefore, resonance defines the description of different types of electronic structures in chemistry for solid, liquid, and gas molecules by the scheme of the pairing of the electron particles.

We easy to learning the facts of ionic crystalline solid molecules by the formation of chemical bonding that combines two atoms of periodic table element together, form by the electrostatic force of attraction. But the fact is not clear, what is the arrangement of atoms within the covalent bonding molecule.

After the development of quantum mechanics, two alternative facts explain the nature and structure of different types of covalent bonding in the molecule. Valence bond theory and molecular orbital model are examples that explain the facts of molecular structure and bonding in the polar or non-polar molecule.molecule definition, structure examples, chemical properties, and sp and sp2 hybridization

Structure of Carbon dioxide Molecule

A carbon dioxide molecule is an example, formed by the components like one carbon and two oxygen atoms having linear structural formulas. The valence shell electronic configuration of chemical element carbon in excited state 2s1 2px1 2py1 2pz1. Oxygen atoms (normal state) 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1. The liner shape of O=C=O suggests that the carbon atom is the central atom with sp-hydridized. After sp-hybridization, the electronic configuration of the carbon atom becomes, (sp)1 (sp)1 2Px1 2py1. Two sp-hybrid orbitals of carbon atoms overlap with two oxygen atoms to form two sigma-bonds. Another two half-filled 2p-orbitals carbon atom binding by pi bonds with two oxygen atoms.

The carbon dioxide molecule linear in shape consists of two sigma and two pi bonds with three resonance hybrids. The experimental bond length between carbon-oxygen in carbon dioxide molecule = 1.15Å. The dipole moment of the resonating structure is equal and acts in opposite directions. The resultant dipole moment of the actual structure becomes zero. The resonating structure of the carbon dioxide molecule equivalent with resonance bond energy 33 kcal/mole.

Structure of Boron trichloride Molecule

The boron atom is the central atom in the BCl3 molecule in chemistry. The valence shell electronic configuration of the boron atom in the excited state, 2s1 2px1 2pz1. On hybridization, these atomic orbitals form three sp2 hybrid orbitals. These hybridized orbitals overlap with three singly filled 3pz orbitals of the chlorine atom to form three B-Cl sigma bonds. Therefore, the BCl3 molecule is a trigonal planner shape. In this molecule central atom boron with an incomplete octet. From the definition of Lewis acids bases in chemistry, BCl3 molecule affinity to accept electron pair acts as a Lewis acid by forming a coordinate covalent bond with other molecules or Lewis bases.

Structure of Methane Molecule

sp3 hybridization of molecules (methane) in molecular chemistryThe methane molecule is the simplest hydrocarbon of alkane or paraffin molecule having molecular formula CH4. In methane molecule, exited carbon atom look like 2px1 2py1 2pz1 electronic configuration. Mixing these four atomic orbitals give four equivalent sp3-hybrid orbitals. These hybrid orbitals are directed towards the corners of the regular tetrahedron. Therefore, each sp3-hybrid orbitals overlap with the 1s-atomic orbitals of four hydrogen atom by the formation of four sigma bonds in the methane molecule.

Ammonia, Water, Hydrogen Fluoride Molecules

In learning chemistry, the ammonia molecule nitrogen atom is the central atom, define valence shell electronic structure, 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1. Therefore, four atomic orbitals of nitrogen hybridization to form four equivalent sp3-hybrid energy levels. Three of these four orbitals in ammonia molecule overlap with 1s-orbitals by uses hydrogen to form three sigma-bond and the remaining hybrid orbitals contain a lone pair of electrons that acts as a Lewis base. Therefore, the ammonia molecule looks like a distorted tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 107.5º.

For example, water and hydrogen fluoride common list of molecules form by sp3-hybridization. Oxygen and fluorine atoms are the central atoms in these molecules with bonding hydrogen. Hence the electronic configuration of oxygen and fluorine, 2s2, 2px2 2py1 2pz1, and 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1 respectively. To explanation molecular structure, these two molecules form by two or three lone pairs respectively define the distorted tetrahedral shape in each molecule.


Ozone gas structure molecular properties preparation

Ozone Gas

Ozone Gas in Atmosphere Ozone (O3) gas is a triatomic allotrope of oxygen and an important constituent of the upper atmosphere where it is formed...
Acetic acid or ethanoic acid preparation formula and uses in food preservation and vinegar solution

Acetic Acid

Acetic Acid Properties and Formula Acetic acid also called ethanoic acid having the molecular formula CH3COOH prepared industrially by various methods and uses commonly as...
Shape of water molecule, chemical formula H2O, formed by oxygen and hydrogen existing in solid (ice), liquid, gas form

Water Molecule

Water Molecule Chemical Structure Water molecule, chemical formula H2O, formed by chemical elements oxygen and hydrogen, existing in our earth environment in crystalline solids, liquid solutions,...
Boric acid (H3BO3) Structure, Properties, Preparation, and Chemical uses

Boric Acid Powder

Properties of Boric Powder Boric acid or Boric Powder, also known as hydrogen borate or orthoboric acid, chemical formula of H3BO3 is oxygen-containing white crystals...
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sulfate ion structure. production, properties and uses

Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric Acid Chemical Formula Sulfuric acid or sulphuric acid, chemical formula H2SO4, also called oil of vitriol or hydrogen sulfate is a commercially important dense,...
Hydrogen peroxide structural formula uses chemical preparation process

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen Peroxide Chemical Formula Hydrogen peroxide molecule has molecular formula H2O2 having an interesting gouache structural unit uses widely in industrial solutions and antiseptic or...
Different types of alcohols like monohydric or polyhydric alcohol and uses alcoholic content


Different Types of Alcohol in Chemistry Types of alcohol uses for the manufacture of drinks or beer, vodka, brandy is ethyl alcohol or ethanol but...
Borax powder crystals or sodium tetra-borate decahydrate chemical formula and compound structure


Borax Powder Chemical Formula Borax powder, chemical name sodium tetraborate decahydrate having chemical formula Na2B4O7, 10H2O, or Na2, 8H2O widely uses in India, Egypt, Rome,...





Tungsten chemical element or transition metal symbol and the periodic table properties


Tungsten metal properties Tungsten (W) is a chemical element or strong, silvery transition metal of Group 6 (VIB) of the periodic table, used for making...
Molybdenum chemical element or transition metal symbol and the periodic table properties


Molybdenum metal properties Molybdenum (Mo) is a chemical element or strong and silvery transition metal of Group 6 (VIB) of the periodic table, used for...
Hafnium element chemical symbol and periodic table properties


Hafnium Element in Periodic Table Hafnium (Hf) is a chemical element or silvery-white transition metal of Group 4 (IVB) of the periodic table. It is...
Zirconium element chemical symbol and periodic table properties


Zirconium Element in Periodic Table Zirconium (Zr) is a chemical element or silvery-white, hard, and high melting transition metals of Group 4 (IVB) of the...