Nuclear Fusion in Chemistry
Nuclear fusion is the process where very light nuclei of chemical elements could be joined or fused to form heavier elements by the emission of energy with the loss of mass during the nuclear reactions. For example, if two protons and two neutrons would be fused or two deuterons would be united, the produced energy is very large about 1.2 MeV in the nuclear fusion process. Fusion technology or formula was first initiated in the second world war for the preparation of thermonuclear weapons and hydrogen bombs by nuclear reaction. Today, fusion fuel is used in the nuclear reactor for the electric or nuclear power generation plant for peaceful applications to mankind.
Nuclear fusion reactions initiated by high temperatures are called thermonuclear reactions. It is believed that the following net fusion or thermonuclear reaction occurs in the interior of the sun or decent star of our solar environment where the temperature is of the order of twenty million-degree Celcius. The calculated energy output during the fusion reaction in sun losing the mass at the rate of four million tons per second. Even this huge mass loss our sun will continue to bless us a good earth solar environment for thirty billion years.
Energy Released in Fusion Process
The exact nuclear fusion reactions for hydrogen bombs have not been reviled, but the common fusion process in chemistry or physics involved deuterium and tritium (atomic number =1 but mass number = 2 and 3) by the liberation of huge heat or energy. The energy released in the fission and fusion of nuclei originates from the facts where the loss of mass occurring in the artificial reaction. Energy release in the nuclear fusion process can be calculated from the mass defect of the following equation, 21H1 + 20n1 → 2He4. The mass defect and energy released for the above reaction = 0.03424 amu ≈ 28 MeV.
Fission and Fusion Reaction
In nuclear fission, a natural particle approaches to radioactive uranium-235 without any formation of the repulsive barrier, but in nuclear fusion, positively charged particles have approaches to each other by the formation of the repulsive types barrier. Therefore, the approaching nuclei must be supplied with sufficient kinetic energy in order to overcome the repulsive barrier. To overcome the repulsive barrier in the hydrogen bomb or fusion reactor, we uses fission technology in the preliminary step for the initiation of extremely high temperatures or energy.
Stellar Energy and Nuclear Fusion
In learning chemistry or physics, the stellar energy meaning the continuous emission of enormous amounts of energy from the sun and other stars due to the fusion process. The temperature of the interior of the stars is of the order 107 to 108 K. At such high temperatures the atoms are completely stripped of their electrons. The bare nuclei with extremely high thermal energy fuse together at a rapid rate which is reasonable for the colossal output of energy. In 1938, Bethe and Weizsacker independently proposed the technology or theory of nuclear science in which 4 helium nucleus is formed in the stars or sun by the fusion of four protons in a chain reaction by the formation of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.