Atomic structure and theory

Atomic structure and atomic theory describe the smallest unit of matter or element which contains subatomic particles such as electron, proton, and neutron. Every state of matter contains neutral or ionized atoms.

Atomic structure, theory and model of atom in chemistry

An atom is considered to be made up of a tiny nucleus carrying neutrons and protons. The tiny nucleus is surrounded by a certain number of negatively charged electrons in a definite order. According to an earlier atomic model, the extranuclear electrons rotate around the nucleus in some definite energy level or orbit.

Today the electrons are considered to be standing waves. The probability of finding a particular electron in a certain region of space around the nucleus is called orbitals. The electronic structure of an atom holds the key to understanding the chemical properties, chemical bonding, and chemical reactions of the elements.

In learning chemistry or biology, every chemical or biological molecule contains neutral or ionized atoms with a definite order arrangement. The Journey from the Daltonian model to the modern atomic structure is a long and arduous one.

Atomic Models

Subatomic elementary particles like electron, proton and neutron of an atom

Elementary Particles

What are Elementary Particles? Elementary particles or subatomic particles like electrons, protons, and neutrons in physics or chemistry were discovered by Scientists Thomson, Golstine, and...
Electron arrangement structure of nitrogen atom


What is an Electron Particle? Electron, the lightest subatomic or elementary particle of atom carries a negative charge, −1.602176634 × 10−19 coulomb or −4.8 ×...
Dalton atomic theory to modern structure model of atom in matter

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

What is Dalton's Atomic Theory? Dalton's atomic theory proposed that an atom was the smallest indivisible and indestructible building block of matter. Dalton's atomic theory was...
Ernest Rutherford model or nuclear planetary model of atom in chemistry or physics by gold foil experiment

Rutherford Model

Rutherford Model of an Atom Rutherford model or nuclear planetary model of an atom in chemistry or physics describes by New Zealand-born physicist Ernest Rutherford...
bohr model of hydrogen energy levels

Bohr Model

Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom Bohr Model of hydrogen atom was adopted by Neils Bohr in 1913 for the explanation of the Rutherford model and the...
de Broglie wavelengths, frequency and energy relation for light photon or electron

de Broglie Relation

de Broglie Hypothesis de Broglie wavelength relation pointed out that just like photons of light, electron have both particle and wave properties of matter. It...
Set of the quantum numbers to define orbital diagram shapes

Quantum Number

What are Quantum Numbers? Quantum numbers such as principal, azimuthal, magnetic, and spin quantum number are the identification number of an electron in an atom....
Atomic emission spectrum of hydrogen

Hydrogen Spectrum

Hydrogen Spectrum in Chemistry Hydrogen spectrum (absorption or emission) is an important type of tool for the determination of the atomic structure of chemical elements...
Electromagnetic spectrum radiation diagram or chart represent frequency, wavelength, energy in chemistry

Electromagnetic Spectrum

What is the electromagnetic spectrum? Electromagnetic spectrum diagram and entire chart represent the number of radiation spectra (frequency, wavelength, and energy) formed by the electrical...
Electron or electronic configuration of elements in periodic table, group wise general formula for s, p-block and 3d series

Electron Configuration

Electronic Configuration of Elements in Periodic Table Electronic configuration or general electron configuration or electronic structure of atoms or ions is the arrangement of orbital...
relation between quantum numbers- for atomic theory questions and answers (quiz)

Atomic Theory Questions

Atomic Theory Questions and Answers Atomic theory questions or quizzes set in online learning chemistry for school college students contain 9 questions and answers. These...

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Calculate oxidation number or state of periodic table chemical elements

Oxidation Number

Oxidation Number of Periodic Table Elements Oxidation number or state of periodic table elements in a chemical compound or molecule is the formal charge (positive...

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Hydrogen element symbol, properties, and isotopes protium, deuterium, and tritium


What is Hydrogen? Hydrogen is the only chemical element in the periodic table in which the valence electron is under the direct influence of the nucleus...