What is pollution and pollutants?

Pollution or environmental pollution is the contamination of air, water, and soil or land by solid, liquid, gaseous substances or any forms of energy like heat, sound, and radioactivity which adverse or harmful effects on human beings, animals, or plants in our environment. The substances or molecules which are responsible for water, air, land, or soil pollution of our environment are called pollutants. For scientific solutions, the harmful substance or molecule can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution are the major kinds of environmental pollution in science (chemistry or biology) which negative effect on our environment or impacts on human health and wildlife. In modern society, we used different types of substances or machinery that polluted our environment by the forms of noise, light (electromagnetic spectrum radiation), and plastic pollution which affect living and non-living organisms of the earth’s environment.

Environmental pollution caused by pollutants are types of substances or forms of energy which harmful effects on air, water, land, or soil in our earth

Types of Pollutants

Different types of polluted substances responsible for different kinds of environmental pollution are classified as gaseous, liquid, solid, and weightless pollutants.

Gaseous Pollutants

Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone gas (O3), and hydrocarbon are the major kinds of harmful gaseous pollutants responsible for air and water pollution in the world. The pollutants, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide react with rainy water or moisture in presence of oxygen or ozone from sulfuric acid or nitric acid rain to increasing the pH scale of water or land.

Liquid Pollutants

Water in nature today is never clean since water contains a different level of poisonous liquid pollutants or wastes (sewage wastes, industrial waste), facts for water pollution. These kinds of pollution wastes contain fecal matter, urine, washing, bacteria enter into the river to affect aquatic life and the self-purification system of water is disturbed.

Solid Pollutants

The solid pollutants include rubbish, ashes, dead animals, waste sludge, chemicals, paints, sand, pesticides, insecticides, manures, crop residue, etc. The solid pollutants are mainly two types namely biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants responsible for general types of environmental pollution.

Pollutants without weight

The pollution define by specific heat, radioactive decay, noise, or sound comes from the thermal and nuclear power plant and noise generating machines are common examples of pollutants without weight. Nuclear or thermal power plants are used for energy generation in our daily life.

Types of Pollution

Air, water, soil, industrial, noise (sound), thermal, radioactive (radiation) are the common types of environmental pollution caused mainly by today’s quality level living. The air, water, and land in nature are never clean, it causes different kinds of pollutants, that impact human health, ocean life, or wildlife on our earth.

Air and Water Pollution

Air pollution in our environment meaning, pollutions caused by different kinds of poisonous gases (CO, NO, NO2, SO3, O3), unburnt hydrocarbon, and different types of harmful chemical elements come from different industries.  Water pollution of our environment comes from the insoluble solid particle, soluble salt solutions, sewage, garbage, and low-level radioactive materials, industrial waste, algae, bacteria, etc

Industrial Pollutants

The waste discharges from industry affect the biosphere like air, water, and land. In industrial pollution, the waste contains harmful chemical elements (Hg, Na, Cd, As, Pb, Ca, etc) and organic or inorganic compounds (acid, alkaline, alcohol, etc) are the most important pollutants which affect harmfully human, green plant and aquatic or marine life. These types of industrial waste threw into the water (lake or river), the water gets polluted. Greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and radioactive waste comes from the different types of factory or energy generation process is the part of industrial pollution that polluted our air, water, and land or total global environment.


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