Nuclear reaction or reactions involved emission or splitting of alpha, beta, gamma rays, or particles from inside the nucleus of an atom in the form of energy radiation to find the ways of artificial decay of natural stable or radioactive elements. For an example of nuclear reaction, the decay of stable chemical elements like nitrogen by alpha ray bombardment generally produces isotopes of oxygen and proton shows by Rutherford in 1919. Nuclear reactions are different types from the chemical reactions in many respects because the outer orbital electrons have participated in the chemical reaction and atomic nuclei have participated in the nuclear reaction.
Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions
Bohr in 1936 suggested the nuclear reactions define the two-stage processes by which the atomic number of the compound nucleus must be the sum of the atomic number of target and projectile atom. The compound nucleus subsequently splits down to new products which are energetically feasible. The mass number of the compound nucleus is the sum of the mass numbers of the initial particles and also the sum of the mass numbers of final products in a nuclear reaction. But the total atomic masses would not remain constant. When the total atomic mass of the products is less than the initial participants of nuclear reactions, energy will be given out and calculate from Einstein equation, E = mc2.
The nature of nuclear reactions is indicated to write the involved projectile and emitted subatomic particles or nucleon within the parenthesis. Therefore the alpha particle bombardment and the emitted proton is an (α, p) type nuclear reactions. In various types of artificial nuclear reactions like nuclear fission or fusion where other than the alpha particle used, such as neutron, proton, deuteron, and gamma-rays in nuclear chemistry. In these nuclear reactions, the bombardment energy in the range of 0 to 10 MeV and gamma rays, protons, neutrons, and alpha particles may be ejected from the fusible nucleus for learning chemistry or physics.
Van't Hoff Equation-Temperature Effect on Equilibrium
Van't Hoff equation connecting equilibrium constant and temperature by thermodynamics relation of Gibbs-Helmholtz free energy equation. The standard chemical...