Nuclear Reaction Definition in Chemistry

Nuclear reaction or reactions involved emission or splitting of alpha, beta, gamma rays, or particles from inside the nucleus of an atom in the form of energy radiation to find the ways of artificial decay of natural stable or radioactive elements. For an example of nuclear reaction, the decay of stable chemical elements like nitrogen by alpha ray bombardment generally produces isotopes of oxygen and proton shows by Rutherford in 1919. Nuclear reactions are different types from the chemical reactions in many respects because the outer orbital electrons have participated in the chemical reaction and atomic nuclei have participated in the nuclear reaction.

Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions

Nuclear reactions like fission or fusion reaction involve splitting of particles from atomic nucleus in energy radiation

Bohr in 1936 suggested the nuclear reactions define the two-stage processes by which the atomic number of the compound nucleus must be the sum of the atomic number of target and projectile atom. The compound nucleus subsequently splits down to new products which are energetically feasible. The mass number of the compound nucleus is the sum of the mass numbers of the initial particles and also the sum of the mass numbers of final products in a nuclear reaction. But the total atomic masses would not remain constant. When the total atomic mass of the products is less than the initial participants of nuclear reactions, energy will be given out and calculate from Einstein equation, E = mc2.

The nature of nuclear reactions is indicated to write the involved projectile and emitted subatomic particles or nucleon within the parenthesis. Therefore the alpha particle bombardment and the emitted proton is an (α, p) type nuclear reactions. In various types of artificial nuclear reactions like nuclear fission or fusion where other than the alpha particle used, such as neutron, proton, deuteron, and gamma-rays in nuclear chemistry. In these nuclear reactions, the bombardment energy in the range of 0 to 10 MeV and gamma rays, protons, neutrons, and alpha particles may be ejected from the fusible nucleus for learning chemistry or physics.


Nuclear fusion, the processes, equation, or reactions where light nuclei can be joined or fused to form heavier by emission of energy

Nuclear Fusion

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Binding energy curve of nuclei calculate from the nuclear mass defect of proton and neutron particles (nucleon)

Binding Energy

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Radioactive Isotopes or radioisotopes of Lead, Uranium, Thorium in decay series and uses in medicine or chemical analysis

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Alpha, beta and gamma rays or particles charge, mass, velocity, and radiation power

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Chemical catalyst or catalysts effect on activation energy or rate of catalysis reaction in chemistry or biology

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Zero order Reaction Rate in Chemical Kinetics and Concentration of Reactant and Product in chemistry

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Van't Hoff equation-equilibrium

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Le Chatelier Principle facts, effect and change of chemical Equilibrium position

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Chemical kinetics half life formula in chemistry, rate change of concentration of reactants and products of reactions per unit time

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Oxidation reduction reaction process and oxidizing reducing agent

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Chemical equilibrium or dynamic equilibria reaction and reactant product solution

Chemical Equilibrium

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Mass action law formula in chemical equilibrium and active masses or molar concentration in chemistry

Law Mass Action

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