Nuclear reaction in physics and nuclear chemistry is the types of natural splitting of heavy nuclei accompanied by the emission or splitting of particles like alpha, beta, gamma in the form of energy. Nuclear scientists find the ways of artificial radioactive decay of stable periodic table elements. For an example of nuclear reaction, the decay of stable chemical elements like nitrogen by alpha ray bombardment generally produces isotopes of oxygen and proton shows by Rutherford in 1919. In learning chemistry, nuclear reactions are different from chemical reactions in many respects because the outer orbital electrons have participated in the chemical reaction and atomic nuclei have participated in the nuclear reaction.
Types of nuclear reaction
Apart from the above natural or artificial radioactivity, nuclear fission and fusion are the other two types of reaction. The process of nuclear fission and fusion is given below the picture,
Bohr in 1936 suggested the nuclear reactions define the two-stage processes by which the atomic number of the compound nucleus must be the sum of the atomic number of target and projectile atoms. The compound nucleus subsequently splits down to new products that are energetically feasible.
The mass number of the compound nucleus is the sum of the mass numbers of the initial particles and also the sum of the mass numbers of final products in a nuclear reaction. But the total atomic masses would not remain constant. When the total atomic mass of the products is less than the initial participants of nuclear reactions, energy will be given out and calculate from the Einstein equation, E = mc2.
What is nuclear binding energy?
Nuclear Binding energy can calculate from the expected mass of any nuclei from the knowledge of the nuclear composition like...
Examples of Artificial transmutation
In 1934, Irene and Frederick Joliot-Curie study the artificial transmutation reaction for chemical elements. By bombardment of alpha particles on certain light isotopes produce several radioactive isotopes of low mass number.
For example, aluminum target bombardment by alpha particles produces phosphorus isotope by artificial transmutation. Not only alpha-particles but other accelerated particles like protons, neutrons, and deuterons are extensively used to obtained artificial radioactive elements. Some examples of nuclear reactions are given below the table,
3Li7 + 2He4 → 5B10 + 0n1
5B11 + 2He4 → 7N14 + 0n1
13Al27 + 0n1 → 11Na24 + 2He4
26Fe56 + 0n1 → 25Mn56 + 1H1
19K39 + 0n1 → 19K38 + 20n1
3Li7 + 1H1 → 22He4
6C12 + 1H1 → 7N13 + γ
13Al27 + 1D2 → 14Si28 + 0n1
4Be5 + 1D2 → 4Be10 + 1H1
1H2 + hν → 1H1 + 0n1
6C12 + hν → 4Be8 + 2He4
The artificial radioactive elements behave in the same fashion as natural radioactive elements. The radioactive decay of these elements follows the fist order chemical kinetics.
Nuclear fission and fusion
For more details about nuclear fission of nuclear fusion, read the following topics,
All the artificial and natural nuclear reactions involved small changes in mass or atomic number. These changes either increase mass by absorption of particles or decreases mass by the emission of particles. The disintegration of heavy nuclei breaks up into two nuclei of comparable masses is called nuclear fission. The energy released in the fission of nuclei originates from the loss of mass occurring in the process.
What is nuclear fusion?
On the other hand, if the light nuclei would be joined or fused together, there would be a loss of mass. Such a fusion process would lead to the liberation of energy. For example, if two protons and two neutrons would be fused in a nuclear reaction, the loss of mass is converted into energy which is very high.