Chemical Kinetics in Physical Chemistry
Chemical kinetics is the branch of physical science which concerned with the rate change of concentration of reactants and products of chemical reactions per unit time and such studies enable us to understand the mechanism by which the reactions occur. In chemical equilibrium, only the initial and final states were considered, the energy relationship between the reactants and products governed by thermodynamics law but in chemical kinetics time variables is introduced. Therefore, the rates law in chemical kinetics defines the equation, formula, reaction mechanism, and molecular pathways in chemistry, biology, cosmology, or engineering. On the basis of speed of chemical kinetics reaction, there are three types of reactions, very fast, very slow, and moderate speed.
But very fast reactions like oxidation reduction or redox reaction and very slow reactions like the formation of HCl in dark conditions can not study under chemical kinetics only a moderate rate of reaction is discus under this branch of science. Hydrolysis of ester, decomposition of N2O5, the reaction between PO4– and I–, etc are examples of moderate rate reaction that studies under chemical kinetics. From a kinetic standpoint, the chemical reactions are classified into two groups, homogeneous which is occur entirely in one phase and heterogeneous where transformation takes place on the surface of the chemical catalyst.
Importance of Chemical Kinetics
There is two main importance for studies the rate equations in chemical kinetics, the first is the practical importance for able to predict how quickly a reaction mixture moves to equilibrium in chemistry. Therefore, it depends only on the external factor which used to preceding the reaction. The second is the theoretical importance of kinetics reactions that define the chemical formulas and mechanisms in physical chemistry. Therefore, we can analyze the chemical kinetics reaction to many elementary steps.
Rate of Reaction in Kinetics Chemistry
The differential rate equations of chemical reaction in kinetics depends on the change of concentration of reactants and products at any instant in time. Let a simple kinetic reaction, A → B, the rate in terms of reactant = – d[A]/dt but rate in terms of reactant = – d[B]/dt. Negative signs are used to show the decrease in the concentration of reactants with time. But the rate is always a positive quantity and it decreases with time. A complication arises if we consider the reaction, A + 2B → 3C + D. In this chemical reaction rate of decrease of B is twice the rate of decrease of A. To resolve this complication we mention the rate of reaction in terms of a particular component.
Question: In a chemical reaction, N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 the rate of (d[NH3]/dt) = 2×10-4. How to calculate the value of (-d[H2]/dt) by kinetics equation?
Answer: From the rate equation for the above reaction, dH2/dt = (3/2) × 2 × 10-4 mol lit-1 sec-1 = 3 × 10-4 mol lit-1 sec-1.
Units of Rate in Chemical Kinetics
In physical chemistry, the rate of reactions in chemical kinetics defined as the rate of change of concentration of reactants and products at any instant in time. Unit of rate = unit of concentration/unit of time. Therefore, the units of the rate of the reaction mol lit-1sec-1 and mol m-3 sec-1.
Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction
Several types of physical and chemical factors affecting the rate of a kinetics reaction, from these active mass, or concentration of the reactants and products derived by mass of action law chemistry, the temperature dependence is derived in the Arrhenius equation of activation energy. The rate of reactions also depends on, presence of a chemical catalyst in a chemical reaction, degree of fineness of reactants, and absorption of radiation of suitable frequency derived in the photochemical reaction.
Chemical Kinetics Rate Law
In Chemistry, the mass of action law guides the basis of the formulation of kinetic rate equations. But the rate equation can only be formulated on the basis of experimental chemical kinetics data report. Therefore, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is represented as, 2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2. From the mass action law and kinetic rate equation, – d[H2O2]/dt = k [H2O2]2. But the experiment shows the rate equation, – d[H2O2]/dt = k [H2O2], where k = constant, called the rate constant of a specific reaction.
The single power of concentration controlled the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is first-order chemical kinetics because of only one concentration term used to express the rate equation. Therefore, for a general reaction, aA + bB → cC + dD. Rate of chemical reaction = k × CAm × CBn, where values of m and n depend on the experimental report of kinetics data. It does not depend on the theoretical values of a and b.
Units of Rate Constant in Kinetics
If a kinetic reaction is expressed as, A → Product. The rate equation for this reaction, – d[A]/dt = k [A]n, where n= order of the reaction. Therefore, the units of rate constant (k) in kinetics
= (unit of concentration)1-n/unit of time. Therefore, the unit of the rate constant for zero, first and second-order kinetics reaction = mol lit-1 sec-1, sec-1, and lit mol-1 sec-1 respectively.
Half-life Equations in Chemical Kinetics
When the chemical reaction precedes the concentration of reactant decreases and productivity increases. But after a certain period of time the value of the reactant one haft of the initial concentration. This class of study uses to derive the half-life equation formulas in chemical kinetics reaction. The integrated rate law in the zero-order kinetics uses to derive half-life equations in chemistry, x = k0 × t. Therefore, t=t½ , x = x/2; t½ = x/2k, where x = initial concentration of reactant.
Application of Rate Laws
In learning chemistry, the application of rate law in chemical kinetics serves mainly three purposes, it predicts the rates of reactions at a given concentration from the knowledge of the rate constant. Rate law help to build up the possible mechanism of a chemical reaction. From the rate laws studies, we can clarify the kinetics of the chemical reaction as first, second, or third-order.