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Atom Structure

The Structure of an Atom

An atom is the smallest structure of an element (molecules or matter) divided into charged particles (electron, proton, neutron). In other words, an atom is the smallest structural model or basic building block of matter that contains the same characteristics and properties of constituent elements in chemistry or physics. Therefore, atoms are smallest very small in size and their radius is measured in nanometers.

What is an atom and atomic structure?

Many atoms (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc) are not capable of independent existence. However, atoms of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, etc) are capable of existing independently.

We have learned from Dalton’s atomic theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. Daltons assumed that an atom of an element is indivisible or does not contain constituent particles.

Model of Atom

The atomic model suggests that atoms are not the smallest particles because some other particles smaller than atoms are also present. These are called sub-atomic particles (electron, proton, and neutron).

Many scientists proposed various atomic theories and models to know the arrangement of such particles within the atoms. These may include:

  • Thomson’s model of the atom (given by J.J. Thomson)
  • Rutherford’s atomic model (given by the British scientist Ernest Rutherford)
  • Bohr model of an atom (given by the Danish physicist Neil Bohr)
  • The quantum atomic model (given by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger)

Atoms Articles

Articles related to structure, model, and diagrams of atoms of various elements and molecules are given below in the topics:

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Quantum Number

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Bohr Model

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Subatomic elementary particles like electron, proton and neutron of an atom

Elementary Particles

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Rutherford Model

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Electron or electronic configuration of elements in periodic table, group wise general formula for s, p-block and 3d series

Electron Configuration

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