Home Chemistry Element Chemical Elements

Chemical Elements

What are chemical elements?

Chemical elements or simply called elements in the periodic table are materials that cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using any chemical process. It is the basic building block of matter. Elements in the periodic table participate in different types of chemical bonding such as ionic bonding, covalent bonding, or metallic bonding to form substances. The list of chemical elements in the periodic table now extended up to 118. The periodic table classification of these 118 chemical elements (metals, non-metals, metalloids) is based on the modern periodic law. The name, symbol, atomic number of all 118 elements on the periodic table is given below the picture,

chemical elements list, name, symbol, atomic number and periodic table classification of all the element

Classification of chemical elements

Mendeleev in 1867 first time attempted to classify chemical elements according to their atomic weight. The post-Mendeleev developments and in order to remove the defects of the Mendeleev periodic table a number of tables have been suggested for classification of chemical elements. All these tables are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic numbers.

Four types of chemical elements are found on the periodic table depending on the nature of the atomic orbitals in which the last electrons enter. These are,

  • s-block elements
  • p-block elements
  • d-block elements
  • f-block elements

Periodic table classification of chemical elements with name, symbol, and atomic number

All these 118 chemical elements of the periodic table are classified into four types by Bohr on the basis of their electronic configuration. They are grouped into four classes depending on the number of incomplete shells of electrons in the atom.

Inert gases

The lack of chemical reactivity of noble gases was the reason to call them inert. The atoms of these chemical elements have completely filled s or p-subshells. They have very little tendency to form chemical compounds due to the high stable ns2np6 configuration or valence shell configuration (except He 1s2).

Representative or normal elements

The representative or normal chemical elements contain some metals, all non-metals, and metalloids. They can be divided into two groups,

  • s-block elements
  • p-block elements

s-block chemical elements

The outermost electronic configuration of s-block chemical elements varies from ns1 to ns2. The members of s-block elements lie on the extreme left on the periodic table. Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals are included in this class. They are extremely electropositive in nature.

p-block chemical elements

The outer electronic configuration of the atoms of p-block elements varies from ns2np1 to ns2np6. Non-metals, metalloids, and inert gases are included in these categories. These chemical elements lie on the extreme right of the periodic table.

Transition metals

The outermost two shells in transition elements are incomplete. They are placed between s- and p-block chemical elements. Atoms of these elements have (n-1)d1 to 10nso or 1 or 2 general electronic configurations.

Inner transition elements

The inner transition elements are those elements whose 4f and 5f orbitals are progressively filled by electrons. Therefore, f block elements are also called inner transition chemical elements. They formed two series such as lanthanoids and actinoids.

The atoms of these chemical elements have three incomplete outer shells. These three incomplete shells are outer ns orbital, (n-1)d orbital, and (n-2)f orbital. The general electronic configuration of inner transition chemical elements are (n-2)f1 to 14(n-1)d0 or 1 or 2ns2.

List of chemical elements

The list of 118 chemical elements with name, atomic number, symbol, atomic weight, electronic configuration, and discovery is given below the table,

List of chemical elements
Element Atomic weight Period Group Electronic configuration Block Discovered by
Atomic number Symbol Name
1 H Hydrogen 1.008 1 1 1s1 s-block Henry Cavendish
2 He Helium 4.0026 1 18 1s2 p-block Sir William Ramsay and independently by Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet
3 Li Lithium 6.94 2 1 [He] 2s1 s-block Johan August Arfvedson
4 Be Beryllium 9.0122 2 2 [He] 2s2 s-block Nicholas Louis Vauquelin
5 B Boron 10.81 2 13 [He] 2s22p1 p-block Louis-Josef Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard and Humphry Davy
6 C Carbon 12.011 2 14 [He] 2s22p2 p-block
7 N Nitrogen 14.007 2 15 [He] 2s22p3 p-block Daniel Rutherford
8 O Oxygen 15.999 2 16 [He] 2s22p4 p-block Joseph Priestley and independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele
9 F Fluorine 18.998 2 17 [He] 2s22p5 p-block Henri Moissan
10 Ne Neon 20.180 2 18 [He] 2s22p6 p-block Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers
11 Na Sodium 22.990 3 1 [Ne] 3s1 s-block Humphry Davy
12 Mg Magnesium 24.305 3 2 [Ne] 3s2 s-block Joseph Black
13 Al Aluminum 26.982 3 13 [Ne] 3s23p1 p-block Hans Oersted
14 Si Silicon 28.085 3 14 [Ne] 3s23p2 p-block Jöns Jacob Berzelius
15 P Phosphorus 30.974 3 15 [Ne] 3s23p3 p-block Hennig Brandt
16 S Sulfur 32.06 3 16 [Ne] 3s23p4 p-block
17 Cl Chlorine 35.45 2 17 [Ne] 3s23p5 p-block Carl Wilhelm Scheele
18 Ar Argon 39.95 3 18 [Ne] 3s23p6 p-block Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay
19 K Potassium 39.098 4 1 [Ar] 4s1 s-block Humphry Davy
20 Ca Calcium 40.078 4 2 [Ar] 4s2 s-block Humphry Davy
21 Sc Scandium 44.956 4 3 [Ar] 3d14s2 d-block Lars Frederik Nilson
22 Ti Titanium 47.867 4 4 [Ar] 3d24s2 d-block William Gregor
23 V Vanadium 50.942 4 5 [Ar] 3d34s2 d-block Andrés Manuel del Rio
24 Cr Chromium 51.996 4 6 [Ar] 3d54s1 d-block Nicholas Louis Vauquelin
25 Mn Manganese 54.938 4 7 [Ar] 3d54s2 d-block Johan Gottlieb Gahn
26 Fe Iron 55.845 4 8 [Ar] 3d64s2 d-block
27 Co Cobalt 58.933 4 9 [Ar] 3d74s2 d-block Georg Brandt
28 Ni Nickel 58.693 4 10 [Ar] 3d84s2 d-block Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
29 Cu Copper 63.546 4 11 [Ar] 3d104s1 d-block
30 Zn Zinc 65.38 4 12 [Ar] 3d104s2 d-block Andreas Marggraf
31 Ga Gallium 69.723 4 13 [Ar] 3d104s24p1 p-block Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
32 Ge Germanium 72.630 4 14 [Ar] 3d104s24p2 p-block Clemens Winkler
33 As Arsenic 74.922 4 15 [Ar] 3d104s24p3 p-block Albertus Magnus
34 Se Selenium 78.971 4 16 [Ar] 3d104s24p4 p-block Jöns Jacob Berzelius
35 Br Bromine 79.904 4 17 [Ar] 3d104s24p5 p-block Antoine-Jérôme Balard and Carl Löwig in Heidelberg
36 Kr Krypton 83.798 4 18 [Ar] 3d104s24p6 p-block Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers
37 Rb Rubidium 85.468 5 1 [Kr] 5s1 s-block Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen
38 Sr Strontium 87.62 5 2 [Kr] 5s2 s-block Adair Crawford
39 Y Yttrium 88.906 5 3 [Kr] 4d15s2 d-block Johan Gadolin
40 Zr Zirconium 91.224 5 4 [Kr] 4d25s2 d-block Martin Heinrich Klaproth
41 Nb Niobium 92.906 5 5 [Kr] 4d35s2 d-block Charles Hatchett
42 Mo Molybdenum 95.95 5 6 [Kr] 4d55s1 d-block Peter Jacob Hjelm
43 Tc Technetium 97 5 7 [Kr] 4d55s2 d-block Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè
44 Ru Ruthenium 101.07 5 8 [Kr] 4d75s1 d-block Karl Karlovich Klaus
45 Rh Rhodium 102.91 5 9 [Kr] 4d85s1 d-block William Hyde Wollaston
46 Pd Palladium 106.42 5 10 [Kr] 4d105s0 d-block William Hyde Wollaston
47 Ag Silver 107.87 5 11 [Kr] 4d105s1 d-block
48 Cd Cadmium 112.41 5 12 [Kr] 4d105s2 d-block Friedrich Stromeyer
49 In Indium 114.82 5 13 [Kr] 4d105s25p1 p-block Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Richter
50 Sn Tin 118.71 5 14 [Kr] 4d105s25p2 p-block
51 Sb Antimony 121.76 5 15 [Kr] 4d105s25p3 p-block
52 Te Tellurium 127.60 5 16 [Kr]4d105s25p4 p-block Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein
53 I Iodine 126.90 5 17 [Kr] 4d105s25p5 p-block Bernard Courtois
54 Xe Xenon 131.29 5 18 [Kr] 4d105s25p6 p-block Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers
55 Cs Cesium 132.91 6 1 [Xe] 6s1 s-block Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen
56 Ba Barium 137.33 6 2 [Xe] 6s2 s-block Humphry Davy
57 La Lanthanum 138.91 6 3 [Xe] 5d16s2 d-block Carl Gustav Mosander
58 Ce Cerium 140.12 6 n/a [Xe] 4f15d16s2 f-block Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger
59 Pr Praseodymium 140.91 6 n/a [Xe] 4f36s2 f-block Carl Auer von Welsbach
60 Nd Neodymium 144.24 6 n/a [Xe] 4f46s2 f-block Carl Auer von Welsbach
61 Pm Promethium 145 6 n/a [Xe] 4f56s2 f-block Jacob .A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, and Charles D. Coryell
62 Sm Samarium 150.36 6 n/a [Xe]4f66s2 f-block Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
63 Eu Europium 151.96 6 n/a [Xe] 4f76s2 f-block Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
64 Gd Gadolinium 157.25 6 n/a [Xe] 4f75d16s2 f-block Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
65 Tb Terbium 158.93 6 n/a [Xe] 4f96s2 f-block Carl Gustav Mosander
66 Dy Dysprosium 162.50 6 n/a [Xe] 4f106s2 f-block Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
67 Ho Holmium 164.93 6 n/a [Xe] 4f116s2 f-block Per Teodor Cleve and independently by Marc Delafontaine and Louis Soret
68 Er Erbium 167.26 6 n/a [Xe] 4f126s2 f-block Carl Gustav Mosander
69 Tm Thulium 168.93 6 n/a [Xe]4f136s2 f-block Per Teodor Cleve
70 Yb Ytterbium 173.05 6 n/a [Xe] 4f146s2 f-block Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
71 Lu Lutetium 174.97 6 n/a [Xe] 4f145d16s2 f-block Georges Urbain and independently by Charles James
72 Hf Hafnium 178.49 6 4 [Xe] 4f145d26s2 d-block George Charles de Hevesy and Dirk Coster
73 Ta Tantalum 180.95 6 5 [Xe] 4f145d36s2 d-block Anders Gustav Ekeberg
74 W Tungsten 183.84 6 6 [Xe] 4f145d46s2 d-block Juan and Fausto Elhuyar
75 Re Rhenium 186.21 6 7 [Xe] 4f145d56s2 d-block Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke and Otto Berg
76 Os Osmium 190.23 6 8 [Xe] 4f145d66s2 d-block Smithson Tennant
77 Ir Iridium 192.22 6 9 [Xe] 4f145d76s2 d-block Smithson Tennant
78 Pt Platinum 195.08 6 10 [Xe] 4f145d96s1 d-block
79 Au Gold 196.97 6 11 [Xe] 4f145d106s1 d-block
80 Hg Mercury 200.59 6 12 [Xe] 4f145d106s2 d-block
81 Tl Thallium 204.38 6 13 [Xe] 4f145d106s26p1 p-block William Crookes
82 Pb Lead 207.2 6 14 [Xe] 4f145d106s26p2 p-block
83 Bi Bismuth 208.98 6 15 [Xe] 4f145d106s26p3 p-block
84 Po Polonium 209 6 16 [Xe] 4f145d106s26p4 p-block Marie Curie
85 At Astatine 210 6 17 [Xe] 4f145d106s26p5 p-block Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè
86 Rn Radon 222 6 18 [Xe] 4f145d106s26p6 p-block Friedrich Ernst Dorn
87 Fr Francium 223 7 1 [Rn] 7s1 s-block Marguerite Perey
88 Ra Radium 226 7 2 [Rn] 7s2 s-block Pierre and Marie Curie
89 Ac Actinium 227 7 3 [Rn] 6d17s2 d-block Andrew Debierne
90 Th Thorium 232.04 7 Actinides [Rn] 6d27s2 f-block Jöns Jacob Berzelius
91 Pa Protactinium 231.04 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f26d17s2 f-block Kasimir Fajans and Otto Göhring
92 U Uranium 238.03 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f36d17s2 f-block Martin Heinrich Klaproth
93 Np Neptunium [237] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f46d17s2 f-block Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson
94 Pu Plutonium [244] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f67s2 f-block Glenn Seaborg and colleagues
95 Am Americium [243] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f77s2 f-block Glenn Seaborg and colleagues
96 Cm Curium [247] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f76d17s2 f-block Glenn Seaborg and colleagues
97 Bk Berkelium [247] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f97s2 f-block Stanley Thompson, Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn Seaborg
98 Cf Californium [251] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f107s2 f-block Stanley Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn Seaborg
99 Es Einsteinium [252] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f117s2 f-block Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
100 Fm Fermium [257] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f127s2 f-block Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
101 Md Mendelevium [258] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f137s2 f-block Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
102 No Nobelium [259] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f147s2 f-block Georgy Flerov and colleagues and independently by Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
103 Lw Lawrencium [266] 7 Actinides [Rn] 5f147s27p1 f-block Georgy Flerov and colleagues and independently by Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
104 Rf Rutherfordium [267] 7 4 [Rn] 5f146d27s2 d-block Georgy Flerov and colleagues and independently by Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
105 Db Dubnium [268] 7 5 [Rn] 5f146d37s2 d-block Scientists at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia
106 Sg Seaborgium [269] 7 6 [Rn] 5f146d47s2 d-block Albert Ghiorso and colleagues
107 Bh Bohrium [269] 7 7 [Rn] 5f146d57s2 d-block Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Münzenberg and colleagues
108 Hs Hassium [269] 7 8 [Rn] 5f146d67s2 d-block Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Münzenberg
109 Mt Meitnerium [278] 7 9 [Rn] 5f146d77s2 d-block Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Münzenberg and colleagues
110 Ds Darmstadtium [281] 7 10 [Rn] 5f146d97s1 d-block Sigurd Hofmann, Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg
111 Rg Roentgenium [282] 7 11 [Rn] 5f146d107s1 d-block Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg
112 Cn Copernicium [285] 7 12 [Rn] 5f146d107s2 d-block Sigurd Hofmann and colleagues
113 Nh Nihonium [286] 7 13 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p1 p-block Scientists from RIKEN in Japan
114 Fl Flerovium [289] 7 14 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p2 p-block Scientists from JINS and LLNL
115 Mc Moscovium [290] 7 15 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p3 p-block Scientists from JINS, LLNL and ORNL
116 Lv Livermorium [293] 7 16 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p4 p-block Scientists from JINS and LLNL
117 Ts Tennessine [294] 7 17 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p5 p-block Scientists from JINS, LLNL and ORNL
118 Og Oganesson [294] 7 18 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p6 p-block Scientists from JINS and LLNL