States of matter in physics or chemistry define one of the distant forms in which the aggregation of molecules occurs in nature. The various kinds of substances that made up matter can be divided mainly into four states like solid, liquid, gases, and plasma. We observed these states by daily human experience. Two types of opposing molecular forces derive the states of matter. One is molecular forces of attraction which tend to hold the molecules together. Another is disruptive forces due to the thermal energy of the molecules.
Gaseous state of matter
The gases are characterized by a lack of definite volume and shape. In gaseous states, the matter has the property of filling any available space to a uniform density. Low density and high compressibility are also the characteristics of gases in learning chemistry or physics. If the thermal energy is much greater than the forces of attraction, then we find the gaseous state of matter. Molecules in a gaseous state move at very high speeds.
The forces of attraction amongst them are not sufficient to bind the molecules in one place. All the gases are found to expand to the same extent when heated to the same interval of temperature. In the gaseous state of matter, the thermal expansion is also the same. Gases have properties to obey some simple common pressure, volume, temperature, and mole number relation. These are called gas laws.
If the forces of attraction are greater than the thermal energy, we have matter in the liquid state. The liquid molecule has kinetic energy but they cannot go very far due to larger forces of attraction amongst them. Due to this fact, liquid has a definite volume, but that does not have a definite shape. They take the shape of the vessel in which they are placed.
In general, the liquid state is more denser and less compressible than gases. On cooling a gas changes into the liquid state and further cooling, the liquid freezes into the solid states. Therefore, the liquid state is the intermediate between the gaseous and solid states of matter. In fact, a liquid has some of the properties of solid and gas.
If the forces of attraction between the molecules are much greater than the thermal energy, we have the solid state of matter. The position of the molecules remains fixed in the solid state. The molecules in the solid state do not possess any translational energy. They have only vibrational energy. Therefore, they can vibrate about their mean position. That is why solids differ markedly from liquid and gases in respect of size, shape, and volume. In general, a solid has a definite size shape and volume.
Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter like solid, liquid, and gases. Like gases, plasma state has no fixed shape and volume and is less dense than liquid or solid-state. It has gaseous, ions, molecules, or atoms which contain positive or negatively charged particles.
Artificially, the plasma state of matter is created or generated by subjecting natural gas to a strong magnetic field or heating natural gas. In modern science or technology, plasma state of matter to the electromagnetic fields used for making television or many electronic devices.