Steel Used in Construction
Steel is essentially a refined alloy of iron that contains a lower percentage of carbon to improve the mechanical strength of the metal and uses in different types of manufacturing and construction industries of the world. Steel is making by refining cast iron followed by the addition of alloying chemical elements like carbon, silicon, manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, etc. It is the most widely used building material in the world infrastructure and industries, uses for making everything from sewing needles to large useable tools.
The steel production process consists of some general principles. First, we remove the carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus from molten pig iron by oxidation usually by oxygen. In this process, carbon and sulfur oxidize to form greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide and escape. The impurities like manganese, silicon, and phosphorus also form oxides which combine with lime to form slag.
Next, separate the slag followed by the addition of requisite quantities of deoxidizer and other alloying elements. A reducing agent like petroleum coke together with ferrosilicon and ferromanganese is used as the deoxidizer, they reduce any left FeO. The technique of steel production has undergone vast changes in the last fifty years. At present, it is going through the basic oxygen, open-hearth, and electric arc process.
Basic Oxygen Process
In the basic oxygen process, we used 99 percent pure oxygen for the production of steel from molten pig iron. The pure oxygen is blown onto the surface of molten pig iron at great speed through water-cooled pipes. The charge of hot molten pig iron and lime is taken in a converter lined with dolomite and magnesium oxide. The oxygen penetrates into the molten charge creating a large turbulence motion and oxidizes the impurities. The slag is separated by tilting the converter and a rapid analytical check is performed to bring the metal to its desired composition and necessary addition of alloying metals to making steel.
Open Hearth Process
In this process, the conversion of steel is carried out on the hearth of a furnace heated by burning gas or oil in air or oxygen. The hearth is lined with dolomite, magnesite, cast iron, and scrap iron with 5 to 6 percent of lime and melted. Oxygen is injected into the furnace through a water-cooled pipe to remove the impurities. The process is required a much longer time than the basic oxygen process.
Electric arc Process
Different types of high-grade steels prepared in the electric arc furnace going through the direct arc and indirect arc process. Direct arc furnaces are usually fitted with three electrodes that penetrate the furnace crucible and strike short circuits between their extremities and the molten charge. In indirect arc furnaces, the arc is struck between two large electrodes, and specific heat from the electrode heated the charge. In the steel-making process, the charge consists of solid scrap iron, pig iron, coke, and anthracites if enough cast iron is not present. Melting and alloying are also conveniently carried out in induction furnaces which contain a vertical basin around which an induction coil wound.
Uses and Properties of Steel
Steel is the principal material or alloy of iron widely used in different types of structural units. Mild steel is used for making most of the machine parts, tools, and utensils. The mechanical and corrosion properties of steel are modified by alloying with silicon and different transition metal like nickel, manganese, chromium, titanium, vanadium, and tungsten, etc.
|Steels||Composition||Properties and Uses|
|Silicon Steel||3.5 percent silicon and very little carbon||Used to making electromagnets and transformer|
|Stainless Steel||10 to 12 percent Cr||Increase resistance, hardness, and corrosion properties, used for making high temperature and high-pressure equipment|
|Manganese Steel||12 to 13 percent of Manganese||Extremely hard and resistant to wear, used in rails, conveyer, chains, rocks crushers, or grinding machinery and safe|
|Nickel Steel||2 to 4 percent of nickel||High ductility and tensile strength, used for making cables, propeller shafts, gears, etc|
|Cobalt Steel||up to 35 percent of cobalt||Highly magnetic, used for making permanent magnets.|
|Chrome-nickel Steel||1 to 4 percent nickel and 0.5 to 2 percent chromium||High tensile strength and greater corrosion resistance, used for making motor car and bicycle parts.|
|Tungsten Steel||10 to 20 percent tungsten and 3 to 8 percent chromium||Very hard, corrosion resistance and retain temper at high temperature, used in making high-speed cutting tools.|
|Molybdenum steel||6 to 7 percent molybdenum||Retain temper at high temperature and used for making high-speed cutting tools.|
The iron-carbon and iron silicon phase chemical equilibrium plays a vital role in the mechanical and technical strength of alloys of iron or steel. The varying properties and uses of steel by carbon are mainly associated with the formation of and distribution of hard carbide (Fe3C) compounds or cementite which is the basis of modern civilization.