Types of chemical bonding

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What is a chemical bond in science?

The fundamental questions in study chemistry ever since the beginning to study the nature of forces responsible for the construction of bond to form a molecule.

After nearly a century of confusion, Kekul, Van't Hoff , Le Bel, Lewis, and London, etc in the nineteenth century given the concept of the construction of chemical bonds in chemistry.
It was easily realized that the number of atoms or groups of atoms combines to forming the ions or molecular species.

Every element has a saturation capacity for the construction of bonds. The valency is commonly used for the saturation capacity of an element.

Definition of chemical bond in chemistry

Chemical bond defines as the force holding together two atoms or groups of atoms forming an aggregate of ions or molecular species such that there occur lowering of energy.

A chemical bond represents the forces between atom or ions in a molecule. There will be many chemical compounds whose properties would indicate intermediate types.

Different types of bond

To study different types of force holding together on atoms or ions to form a molecule in our definition the chemical compounds form mainly three types of bond.
  1. Ionic bond or electrovalent bond or electrostatic bond.
  2. Covalent bond.
  3. Metallic bond.
The ionic bond is electrostatic forces that bind together oppositely charged ions forms by the transfer of electron or electrons from an electropositive metal to an electronegative non-metal atom.
A covalent bond defined as a force holding together atoms through the sharing of electrons.
Types of chemical bonding
Chemical bonding

Ionic bond definition and example

Ionic compounds are constructed by the transference of electron or electrons from one atom to another.
Elements that have the tendency to lose one or more electrons are called electropositive and elements that have a tendency to gain electrons are called electronegative.

Crystallographic studies show that there is no discrete sodium chloride molecule in the crystal of sodium chloride. each of sodium ion surrounded by six chlorine atom or vice versa. The two oppositely charged ions are held together by the electrostatic force of attraction.

Each sodium atom loses one electron to form uni positive sodium ion and neutral chlorine atom gains this electron to form uni negative ion. The two ions constructed a close-packed type ionic compound.
Na → Na⁺ + e
Cl + e → Cl⁻

Na⁺ + Cl⁻ → NaCl

What type of elements form covalent bonds?

Covent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons. Lewis represents the structure of the covalent bond of hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride.

A single covalent bond is formed between two hydrogen atom and hydrogen and a fluorine atom. This type of bond formed by the sharing of only one electron between the bonded atom.

H⋅ + ⋅H → H⋅ ⋅H or H-H
H⋅ + ⋅F → H⋅ ⋅F or H-F

Double and triple covalent bonds formed when the atoms bonded together share two or three electrons. This type of bond formed in oxygen and nitrogen molecules.

It is not essential for covalent bonding, the sharing of electron equally to the partner. For the compound formation between boron trifluoride and ammonia both the electrons come from ammonia. Such type of bond is called a coordinate covalent bond. here ammonia as a donner and boron trifluoride is an acceptor.
NH₃ + BF₃ → BF₃←NH₃
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How are metallic bonds formed?

Metals are a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy and formed crystalline solid with high coordination numbers of 12 or 14.

Since all the atoms of metal, crystal are identical and they can not bound by an ionic bond. Two different types of atom formed this type of bond.

Covalent bonding also not possible for the formation of metallic crystals due to much weak van der Waals forces acting between covalent atoms.

Metallic crystal may be a collection of positive atomic cores immersed in a fluid of mobile electrons or sea of mobile electrons.

The force that binds a metal ion to the mobile electrons or sea of electrons is a known metallic bond. This concept is called the electrons sea model.
This model can explain the conductivity and heat conduction in the metal.
  • Under the influence of the applied electric field, it is possible to move the electrons through the crystal lattice. Thereby metals are the conductor of electricity.
  • Heat conduction by the consequence of freedom of motion in electrons. The higher energy transfers some energy to mobile electrons, which transfer one atomic core of the metal atom to another atomic core at another distinct core.
Most of the properties of the metal can explain this type of bonding but the heat capacity of metals difficult to explain by these types of bonding.

Online chemistry college courses for different types of chemical bonding, construction of bond, the covalent and ionic compound, metallic bond

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