Different Types of Alcohol

Different types of names like monohydric, polyhydric, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols have one or more alcoholic or hydroxyl groups that uses in different alcohol beverages and drugs industry. For example, ethyl alcohol uses for the preparation of wine which is prepared by fermentation formula.

Therefore alcohols are the hydroxyl derivative of alkane. According to the number of functional or alcoholic groups, these organic compounds are classified as the following types of alcohol.

  1. Monohydric
  2. Dihydric
  3. Trihydric
  4. Polyhydric

Different types of monohydric, polyhydric, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohol and their uses

Monohydric and Polyhydric Alcohols

Monohydric alcohols contain one alcoholic group and dihydric and trihydric contain two or three alcoholic groups. But the alcohols contain four or more than four alcoholic groups are known as polyhydric.

The monohydric is the simplest with the general molecular formula

CnH2n+2O or CnH2n+1OH

Aromatic and Aliphatic alcohol

But other types of classification of alcohol given according to the attached alcoholic group to the aromatic or aliphatic Hydrocarbon. Hence these alcohol names as aliphatic and aromatic alcohols.

Thus aliphatic alcohols are compounds containing hydroxyl groups in the side chain of the alkyl group. Thus these types are the alkyl derivative of alcohol.

But aromatic alcohols are compounds containing alcoholic groups directly attached to the nucleus of the benzene ring. Thus these types are the aryl derivative of alcohol.

Types of the aliphatic alcohol

  1. Methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, isobutanol, etc are examples of monohydric alcohols because it contains only one hydroxyl group.
  2. But ethylene glycol, trimethylene glycol, pentamethylene glycol, isobutene glycol are dihydric types of aliphatic alcohols because it contains two alcoholic groups.
  3. The only important trihydric aliphatic organic compound is glycerol or propane-1-2-2-triol because it contains three alcoholic groups. Glycerol occurs in almost all animals and vegetable oils.
  4. Hence D-sorbitol, D-mannitol, and dulcitol are the polyhydric aliphatic alcohols that occur naturally contain more than three hydroxyl groups.

Types of aromatic alcohol

Aromatic alcohols are also classified as monohydric, dihydric, trihydric, and polyhydric phenols, according to the hydroxyl group attached to the benzene ring.

Thus phenol, catechol (o-dihydroxybenzene), Resorcinol (m-dihydroxybenzene)quinol (p-dihydroxy benzene ) are examples of these types of alcohols.

Monohydric Alcohol Formula

Monohydric alcohols are further classified according to formula as primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohol. Hence This classification based on the position of the alcoholic group attached to the alkyl.

If the alcoholic group attached to the alpha, beta, and gamma carbon atom, then these alcohols are known as primary secondary and tertiary respectively.

Chemical Names and Formula of Alcohol

Different types of simpler monohydric alcohols are known by their trivial names. Thus this type of name obtained from alcohol formula which is the chemical derivative of the alkyl attached to the hydroxyl or alcoholic group.

CH3OH methanol
CH3CH2CH2OH n-propanol
CH3CH(OH)CH3 iso-propanol
(CH3)3COH t-butanol

But other types of naming by considering the alcohols as the derivative of methanol.

CH3CH2CH3OH
ethyl methanol
CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3
methyl ethyl methanol

Common Uses of Alcohol

Alcohol is commercially essential compounds, and common types of alcohols uses in alcoholic beverages like wine and beer and chemical industry.

  1. Hence it used as a solvent for paints, varnishes, shellac, celluloid, and cement industry.
  2. When ethanol mixed with small amounts of methanol forms methylated spirit. This mixture used as an automobile antifreeze mixture, remove ink from various kind of surface.
  3. Alcohols used for manufacturing dyes and drugs, perfumes, etc and ethanol also used as an alternate fuel of the motor vehicle.
  4. Common alcohol like Phenol, methanol, ethanol uses as an antiseptic and sanitizer. It also uses for the preparation of drugs and bakelite.

Preparation of Alcohol by Fermentation

Fermentation is the earliest process for the preparation of ethyl alcohol by the catalyst. But this process still uses for the manufacture of beer, wine, and brandy. The common materials used for this process are wheat, barley, or potato.

Hence the mashed materials boiling at 500C for one hour. But the melt contains the enzyme diastase, which converted starch into maltose and sugar by hydrolysis.

    \[ \left ( C_{6}H_{10}O_{5} \right )_{n}+\frac{n}{2}H_{2}O\xrightarrow{diatase}\frac{n}{2}C_{12}H_{22}O_{11} \]

The liquid cooled to 3000C and fermented with yeast for 1-3 days. But yeast contains various enzymes, among which maltase converts maltose into glucose and zymase. But zymase further converted glucose into ethanol.

    \[ C_{12}H_{22}O_{11}+H_{2}O\xrightarrow{maltase}2C_{6}H_{12}O_{6} \]

    \[ C_{6}H_{12}O_{6}\xrightarrow{zymase}2C_{2}H_{5}OH+2CO_{2} \]

The CO2 recovered and sold as a by-product. But fermented liquor which contains 6 -10 percent of alcohol uses as the manufacture of wine, beer, brandy, or other food beverage.